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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the Total Knee Arthroplasty patients and by neighborhood Immigrant proportion

From: Living in immigrant communities does not impact total knee arthroplasty outcomes: experience from a high-volume center in the United States

Characteristic All primary TKA (N = 3898) Immigrant proportion <  10% (n = 1032) Immigrant proportion 10 to <  40% (n = 2527) Immigrant proportion ≥ 40% (n = 339) p-value (<  10% v. ≥ 40%)
Patient demographics
 Age at surgery (years), mean ± SD 67.8 ± 9.5 67.0 ± 9.2 68.1 ± 9.6 67.8 ± 9.6 0.16
 Sex: female, n (%) 2346 (60.2%) 568 (55.0%) 1538 (60.9%) 240 (70.8%) < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 30.0 ± 5.9 30.1 ± 5.7 29.9 ± 6.0 31.0 ± 6.6 0.03
Race, n (%)      < 0.001
 White 3568 (91.5%) 1012 (98.1%) 2297 (90.9%) 259 (76.4%)  
 Black 174 (4.5%) 5 (0.5%) 128 (5.1%) 41 (12.1%)  
 Asian 74 (1.9%) 9 (0.9%) 47 (1.9%) 18 (5.3%)  
 Other 56 (1.4%) 5 (0.5%) 35 (1.4%) 16 (4.7%)  
 Unknown 26 (0.7%) 1 (0.1%) 20 (0.8%) 5 (1.5%)  
Ethnicity, n (%)      < 0.001
 Hispanic 129 (3.3%) 5 (0.5%) 35 (1.4%) 16 (4.7%)  
Patient status
 One or more comorbidities 1057 (27.1%) 267 (25.9%) 674 (26.7%) 116 (34.2%) 0.003
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Education level (highest), n (%)      < 0.001
  Some high school, high school graduate or some college (< College graduate) 1366 (35.6%) 359 (36.0%) 849 (35.1%) 158 (49.4%)  
  College graduate or Masters, professional or doctorate degree (> College graduate) 2370 (63.4%) 639 (64.0%) 1569 (64.9%) 162 (50.6%)  
  Lives alone, n (%) 860 (22.4%) 159 (15.6%) 598 (24.1%) 103 (31.0%) < 0.001
Census tract characteristics
 Number of census tracts, n (%) 1937 (100%) 498 (25.7%) 1196 (61.7%) 243 (12.5%)  
 Poverty, n (%)      < 0.001
   <  10% 3175 (81.5%) 975 (94.5%) 2078 (82.2%) 122 (36.0%)  
  10% – <  20% 511 (13.1%) 48 (4.7%) 300 (11.9%) 163 (48.1%)  
   ≥ 20% 212 (5.4%) 9 (0.9%) 149 (5.9%) 54 (15.9%)  
Patient-reported outcomes
 HSS expectation survey, mean ± SD 79.2 ± 17.6 80.1 ± 17.7 78.8 ± 17.4 79.5 ± 18.3 0.63
 Pre-operative survey results, mean ± SD
  WOMAC pain 54.4 ± 17.5 54.9 ± 17.6 54.7 ± 17.3 51.0 ± 18.9 < 0.001
  WOMAC function 53.7 ± 17.6 54.2 ± 16.9 54.1 ± 17.7 49.1 ± 17.3 < 0.001
 2-year post-operative survey results
  WOMAC pain, mean ± SD 87.9 ± 15.6 89.3 ± 14.7 87.5 ± 15.7 86.5 ± 17.5 0.01
  WOMAC function, mean ± SD 85.6 ± 16.1 86.7 ± 14.9 85.4 ± 16.2 83.6 ± 17.9 0.005
  1. TKA total knee arthroplasty, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, HSS Hospital for Special Surgery, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index