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Table 5 Change scores (post-intervention-pre-intervention; 1 month follow up-post-intervention) *

From: The effect of manual therapy and stabilizing exercises on forward head and rounded shoulder postures: a six-week intervention with a one-month follow-up study

  Differences from Post-intervention to pre-intervention
Exercise plus manipulation group Exercise group Control group
Head posture, degree −5.31 ± 0.41¤ −5.21 ± 0.18¤ −1.08 ± 0.75
Shoulder posture, degree −5.33 ± 1.08¤ −5.48 ± 1.33¤ −1.25 ± 0.43
Function (scores) 1.25 ± 0.21*¤ 0.95 ± 0.32¤ 0.07 ± 0.12
Pain (0–10) −2.55 ± 0.41*¤ −1.89 ± 0.13¤ 0.41 ± 0.21
Differences from 1 month follow up to post-intervention
 Head posture, degree 0.65 ± 0.22 0.54 ± 0.31 −1.23 ± 1.02
 Shoulder posture, degree −1.16 ± 0.42 0.67 ± 0.11 0.48 ± 0.32
 Function (scores) −0.32 ± 0.13 − 0.47 ± 0.18 0.18 ± 0.14
 Pain (0–10) −1.34 ± 0.22¥ −0.75 ± 0.21 0.25 ± 0.22
  1. A positive change score indicates an increase in values
  2. A negative change score indicates a decrease in values
  3. ¤Statistically significant difference from the control group (P < .05)
  4. ¥Statistically significant difference from 1-month follow-up to post-intervention (P < 0.05)
  5. *Statistically significant difference from exercise group (P < 0.05)
  6. *Values are mean ± SD