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Table 2 Univariate analysis of possible risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in the past 12 months among study (n = 740) health care workers (HCWs)

From: Prevalence and factors associated with low back pain among health care workers in southwestern Saudi Arabia

Characteristics Total number of HCWs LBP in the past 12 months OR(95%CI)
No %
Level of healthcare
 Primary 176 114 64.8 Ref
 Secondary and tertiary 564 433 76.7 1.80 (1.25–2.59)
Sex    7  
 Male 403 293 2.7 Ref
 Female 337 254 75.4 1.15 (0.83–1.60)
Age (years)
 20- 232 158 68.1 Ref
 30- 319 255 79.9 1.87 (1.26–2.75)
 40- 131 93 71.0 1.15 (0.72–1.83
  > 50 58 41 70.7 1.13 (0.60–2.12)
Job title
 Physician 353 259 73.2 Ref
 Nurse 214 156 72.9 0.99 (0.67–1.45)
 Paramedic 145 108 74.5 1.07 (0.69–1.66)
 Dentist 27 25 88.9 2.93 (0.86–9.97)
Experience in years
 Less than 5 100 69 69.0 Ref
 5–10 283 205 72.4 1.18 (0.72–1.94)
 More than 10 357 273 76.5 1.46 (0.90–2.38)
Work conditions
 Long standing 126 86 68.3 Ref
 Long sitting 290 225 77.6 1.61 (1.01–2.56)
 Both 324 236 72.8 1.25 (0.80–1.95)
Body mass index
 Normal weight 282 201 71.3 Ref
 Overweight 321 235 73.2 1.10 (0.77–1.57)
 Obese 137 111 81.0 1.72 (1.04–2.83)
Health status
 No chronic disease 586 428 73.0% Ref
 One or more chronic diseases 154 119 77.3 1.26 (0.83–1.91)
Regular physical activity
 No 227 157 69.2 Ref
 Yes 513 390 76.0 0.70 (0.5–0.99)
Back Traumaa
 No 637 448 70.3 Ref
 Yes 103 99 96.1 10.44 (3.79-28.78)
Smoking status
 No 656 484 73.8 Ref
 Yes 84 63 75.0 1.07 (0.63–1.80)
  1. Bold aOR (95% CI) are statistically significant
  2. OR odds ratio for studied factors, (95% CI) 95% confidence interval
  3. aOverexertional trauma, fall, or lifting heavy objects