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Table 5 Subanalysis 3. Results from sex-stratified linear regression models regarding the association between between musculoskeletal pain intensity (according to NRS) and cardiovascular autonomic function (HR, rMSSD, SBPV, BRS) in the full sample (for HR and rMSSD, n = 1619 men and 2096 women; for SBPV and BRS, n = 832 men and 979 women). The complete models are presented in Additional files 10 and 11

From: Musculoskeletal pains and cardiovascular autonomic function in the general Northern Finnish population

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV
  β for NRS [95% CI] β for NRS [95% CI] β for NRS [95% CI] β for NRS [95% CI]
Men
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.427 [0.200; 0.655] 0.201 [−0.018; 0.421] 0.348 [0.118; 0.578] 0.172 [−0.050; 0.395]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.460 [0.209; 0.710] 0.277 [0.030; 0.525] 0.375 [0.121; 0.629] 0.237 [−0.014; 0.487]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated −0.024 [− 0.036; − 0.012] −0.012 [− 0.023; − 0.000] −0.020 [− 0.032; − 0.008] −0.011 [− 0.023; 0.001]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing − 0.020 [− 0.032; − 0.008] −0.011 [− 0.022; 0.001] −0.016 [− 0.028; − 0.004] −0.009 [− 0.021; 0.002]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated 0.000 [− 0.020; 0.021] 0.002 [− 0.020; 0.023] 0.004 [− 0.017; 0.026] 0.004 [− 0.017; 0.026]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing −0.006 [− 0.027; 0.015] −0.004 [− 0.025; 0.018] 0.004 [− 0.017; 0.026] 0.002 [− 0.019; 0.024]
 Outcome: BRS, seated −0.019 [− 0.032; − 0.005] −0.006 [− 0.019; 0.007] −0.017 [− 0.031; − 0.003] −0.007 [− 0.020; 0.007]
 Outcome: BRS, standing − 0.014 [− 0.029; 0.000] −0.003 [− 0.017; 0.011] −0.013 [− 0.027; 0.002] −0.003 [− 0.017; 0.012]
Women
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.128 [−0.037; 0.294] 0.048 [−0.115; 0.212] 0.046 [− 0.125; 0.218] 0.010 [− 0.159; 0.179]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.097 [− 0.097; 0.290] 0.055 [− 0.139; 0.248] 0.049 [− 0.153; 0.250] 0.035 [− 0.166; 0.236]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated −0.016 [− 0.026; − 0.006] −0.010 [− 0.020; − 0.001] −0.009 [− 0.018; 0.001] −0.006 [− 0.015; 0.004]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing − 0.014 [− 0.024; − 0.004] −0.010 [− 0.019; 0.001] −0.008 [− 0.018; 0.002] −0.006 [− 0.016; 0.004]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated − 0.013 [− 0.032; 0.006] −0.011 [− 0.031; 0.008] −0.010 [− 0.029; 0.010] −0.009 [− 0.029; 0.010]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing − 0.002 [− 0.021; 0.017] −0.001 [− 0.021; 0.018] 0.001 [− 0.019; 0.021] 0.001 [− 0.019; 0.021]
 Outcome: BRS, seated −0.006 [− 0.017; 0.006] 0.000 [− 0.011; 0.011] 0.001 [− 0.010; 0.013] 0.003 [− 0.008; 0.015]
 Outcome: BRS, standing −0.016 [− 0.028; − 0.004] −0.009 [− 0.021; 0.003] −0.009 [− 0.021; 0.004] −0.006 [− 0.018; 0.006]
  1. Bold denotes statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05)
  2. Model I (crude): NRS
  3. Model II (adjusted for lifestyle): Model I + BMI + LTPA + smoking
  4. Model III (adjusted for comorbidities): Model I + HSCL-25 + comorbidity + medication
  5. Model IV (adjusted for lifestyle and comorbidities): Model II + Model III
  6. BMI Body mass index, BRS Baroreflex sensitivity, CI Confidence interval, HR Heart rate, HSCL-25 Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, LTPA Leisure-time physical activity, NPS Number of pain sites, NRS Pain intensity according to Numerical Rating Scale, P P value for β, rMSSD Root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals, SBPV Systolic blood pressure variability, β Beta coefficient