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Table 4 Subanalysis 2. Results from sex-stratified linear regression models regarding the association between musculoskeletal pain sites (NPS) and cardiovascular autonomic function (HR, rMSSD, SBPV, BRS) in Subsample 2, i.e., individuals with clinically relevant symptoms of depression and anxiety (HSCL-25 score ≥ 1.55) (for HR and rMSSD, n = 302 men and 507 women; for SBPV and BRS, n = 163 men and 241 women). The complete models are presented in Additional files 8 and 9

From: Musculoskeletal pains and cardiovascular autonomic function in the general Northern Finnish population

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV
  β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI]
Men
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.040 [−0.669; 0.748] − 0.209 [− 0.900; 0.482] 0.131 [− 0.579; 0.840] −0.141 [− 0.840; 0.559]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.020 [− 0.768; 0.807] − 0.180 [− 0.963; 0.603] 0.080 [− 0.714; 0.873] − 0.140 [− 0.934; 0.653]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated 0.010 [− 0.027; 0.047] 0.026 [− 0.011; 0.062] 0.006 [− 0.031; 0.044] 0.024 [− 0.013; 0.061]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing 0.000 [− 0.036; 0.037] 0.012 [− 0.024; 0.049] −0.002 [− 0.039; 0.035] 0.010 [− 0.028; 0.047]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated −0.011 [− 0.072; 0.049] −0.008 [− 0.071; 0.054] 0.001 [− 0.061; 0.062] 0.004 [− 0.060; 0.068]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing 0.009 [− 0.053; 0.070] 0.018 [− 0.045; 0.081] 0.015 [− 0.048; 0.079] 0.024 [− 0.041; 0.088]
 Outcome: BRS, seated 0.023 [− 0.019; 0.065] 0.042 [0.002; 0.082] 0.012 [− 0.030; 0.054] 0.032 [− 0.009; 0.072]
 Outcome: BRS, standing 0.027 [− 0.019; 0.072] 0.047 [0.002; 0.092] 0.016 [− 0.030; 0.062] 0.038 [− 0.008; 0.084]
Women
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.434 [− 0.018; 0.885] 0.265 [− 0.163; 0.694] 0.383 [− 0.072; 0.837] 0.267 [− 0.164; 0.698]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.586 [0.059; 1.112] 0.422 [− 0.086; 0.931] 0.561 [0.030; 1.092] 0.440 [− 0.071; 0.952]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated −0.016 [− 0.042; 0.010] −0.005 [− 0.030; 0.020] −0.009 [− 0.036; 0.017] −0.003 [− 0.028; 0.022]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing − 0.018 [− 0.044; 0.009] −0.007 [− 0.032; 0.018] −0.010 [− 0.036; 0.016] −0.004 [− 0.029; 0.021]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated 0.022 [− 0.030; 0.073] 0.030 [− 0.022; 0.082] 0.022 [− 0.030; 0.075] 0.027 [− 0.026; 0.080]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing 0.034 [− 0.015; 0.083] 0.039 [− 0.010; 0.088] 0.034 [− 0.016; 0.084] 0.037 [− 0.013; 0.088]
 Outcome: BRS, seated −0.040 [− 0.070; − 0.010] −0.030 [− 0.059; − 0.001] −0.029 [− 0.059; 0.001] −0.024 [− 0.053; 0.005]
 Outcome: BRS, standing − 0.053 [− 0.087; − 0.019] −0.037 [− 0.068; − 0.006] −0.038 [− 0.071; − 0.005] −0.028 [− 0.059; 0.003]
  1. Bold denotes statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05)
  2. Model I (crude): NPS
  3. Model II (adjusted for lifestyle): Model I + BMI + LTPA + smoking
  4. Model III (adjusted for comorbidities): Model I + comorbidity + medication
  5. Model IV (adjusted for lifestyle and comorbidities): Model II + Model III
  6. BMI Body mass index, BRS Baroreflex sensitivity, CI Confidence interval, HR Heart rate, HSCL-25 Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, LTPA Leisure-time physical activity, NPS Number of pain sites, P P value for β, rMSSD Root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals, SBPV Systolic blood pressure variability, β Beta coefficient