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Table 3 Subanalysis 1. Results from sex-stratified linear regression models regarding the association between musculoskeletal pain sites (NPS) and cardiovascular autonomic function (HR, rMSSD, SBPV, BRS) in Subsample 1, i.e., individuals with intense (NRS ≥ 5) and frequent (> 30 days/year) pain (for HR and rMSSD, n = 450 men and 761 women; for SBPV and BRS, n = 250 men and 375 women). The complete models are presented in Additional files 6 and 7

From: Musculoskeletal pains and cardiovascular autonomic function in the general Northern Finnish population

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV
  β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI]
Men
 Outcome: HR, seated − 0.448 [−1.046; 0.149] − 0.782 [− 1.371; − 0.193] −0.663 [− 1.271; − 0.056] −0.902 [− 1.501; − 0.302]
 Outcome: HR, standing −0.349 [− 1.017; 0.319] −0.660 [− 1.324; 0.003] −0.643 [− 1.320; 0.034] −0.843 [− 1.515; − 0.171]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated 0.005 [− 0.026; 0.037] 0.022 [− 0.009; 0.053] 0.011 [− 0.021; 0.044] 0.024 [− 0.008; 0.056]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing 0.005 [− 0.026; 0.037] 0.017 [− 0.014; 0.049] 0.013 [− 0.019; 0.045] 0.021 [− 0.011; 0.053]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated − 0.013 [− 0.066; 0.039] − 0.010 [− 0.063; 0.043] −0.009 [− 0.063; 0.046] − 0.010 [− 0.064; 0.045]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing − 0.042 [− 0.094; 0.009] − 0.030 [− 0.083; 0.002] −0.029 [− 0.081; 0.024] −0.022 [− 0.075; 0.030]
 Outcome: BRS, seated 0.018 [− 0.017; 0.053] 0.035 [0.001; 0.068] 0.020 [− 0.016; 0.056] 0.034 [− 0.001; 0.068]
 Outcome: BRS, standing 0.016 [− 0.021; 0.053] 0.030 [− 0.007; 0.066] 0.020 [− 0.018; 0.058] 0.029 [− 0.008; 0.067]
Women
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.497 [0.108; 0.886] 0.300 [−0.083; 0.683] 0.370 [− 0.027; 0.767] 0.239 [− 0.152; 0.629]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.525 [0.058; 0.992] 0.402 [−0.066; 0.869] 0.482 [0.002; 0.963] 0.396 [−0.083; 0.874]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated −0.032 [− 0.055; − 0.009] −0.019 [− 0.042; 0.004] −0.018 [− 0.042; 0.005] −0.011 [− 0.034; 0.012]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing − 0.022 [− 0.046; 0.002] −0.013 [− 0.037; 0.011] −0.011 [− 0.035; 0.014] −0.006 [− 0.031; 0.018]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated 0.023 [− 0.020; 0.066] 0.030 [− 0.014; 0.073] 0.039 [− 0.006; 0.084] 0.041 [− 0.004; 0.086]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing 0.029 [− 0.014; 0.072] 0.032 [− 0.011; 0.076] 0.040 [− 0.005; 0.086] 0.038 [− 0.007; 0.084]
 Outcome: BRS, seated −0.033 [− 0.060; − 0.007] −0.024 [− 0.050; 0.002] −0.023 [− 0.050; 0.004] −0.019 [− 0.046; 0.008]
 Outcome: BRS, standing − 0.038 [− 0.066; − 0.010] −0.026 [− 0.053; 0.002] −0.030 [− 0.058; − 0.001] −0.023 [− 0.050; 0.005]
  1. Bold denotes statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05)
  2. Model I (crude): NPS
  3. Model II (adjusted for lifestyle): Model I + BMI + LTPA + smoking
  4. Model III (adjusted for comorbidities): Model I + HSCL-25 + comorbidity + medication
  5. Model IV (adjusted for lifestyle and comorbidities): Model II + Model III
  6. BMI Body mass index, BRS Baroreflex sensitivity, CI Confidence interval, HR Heart rate, HSCL-25 Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, LTPA Leisure-time physical activity, NPS Number of pain sites, NRS Numerical rating scale, P P value for β, rMSSD Root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals, SBPV Systolic blood pressure variability, β Beta coefficient