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Table 5 Association between the perceived heaviness of school bags and low back pain before and after adjusting for potential confounders

From: Prevalence of low Back pain among adolescents in relation to the weight of school bags

Perceived heaviness of school bag* Model 1 OR [95%CI] Model 2 OR [95%CI] Model 3 OR [95%CI] Model 4 OR [95%CI]
Light 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference]
Normal 1.23 [0.70–2.18] 1.19 [0.67–2.12] 1.19 [0.66–2.12] 1.20 [0.67–2.15]
Heavy 1.98 [1.13–3.50] 1.71 [0.95–3.04] 1.68 [0.94–3.00] 1.65 [0.92–2.96]
Very heavy 4.20 [2.19–8.06] 3.59 [1.85–6.98] 3.54 [1.82–6.91] 3.41 [1.74–6.68]
p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. *78 students are excluded from the analysis because they have no school bag. OR: odds ratio; Model 1: unadjusted; Model 2: adjusted for socio-demographic factors (gender, governorate, education of the father); Model 3: adjusted for variables in the Model 2 in addition to the weight of the bag, number of days the students carry their bag to schools and number of bags taken to schools; Model 4: adjusted for variables in Model 3 in addition to smoking and hours per day spent on watching TV/using computer