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Table 4 Association between bag weight (as a percentage of body weight) and low back pain before and after adjusting for potential confounders

From: Prevalence of low Back pain among adolescents in relation to the weight of school bags

Bag weight (% of body weight) Model 1 OR [95%CI] Model 2 OR [95%CI] Model 3 OR [95%CI] Model 4 OR [95%CI]
<  7.3% 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference]
7.3 to < 11% 1.32 [0.96–1.82] 1.09 [0.78–1.52] 0.80 [0.56–1.15] 0.79 [0.55–1.14]
≥ 11% 1.49 [1.08–2.04] 1.25 [0.90–1.76] 0.85 [0. 59–1.24] 0.84 [0.58–1.23]
p-value 0.041 0.390 0.488 0.458
  1. OR: odds ratio; Model 1: unadjusted; Model 2: adjusted for socio-demographic factors (gender, governorate, education of the father); Model 3: adjusted for variables in the Model 2 in addition to the perceived heaviness of school bags, number of days the students carry their bag to schools and number of bags taken to schools; Model 4: adjusted for variables in Model 3 in addition to smoking and hours per day spent on watching TV/using computer