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Table 2 Follow-up scores and the change scores for PROMs according to the GPE-scale

From: Follow-up score, change score or percentage change score for determining clinical important outcome following surgery? An observational study from the Norwegian registry for Spine surgery evaluating patient reported outcome measures in lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

   Spinal stenosis Degenerative spondylolisthesis
   N (%) 1 year
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Spear man’s rho Change score Mean (SD) Spearman’s rho N (%) 1 year Follow- up Mean (SD) Spearman’s rho Change score Mean (SD) Spear- man’s rho
  All 3060   23 (18) 0.77 * 16 (18) 0.66* 509   22 (18) 0.78* 19 (17) 0.64*
O Compl.recovered 599 (20%) 4 (9)   32 (16)   117 (23%) 4 (7)   33 (15)  
D Much improved 1176 (38%) 17 (12)   21 (15)   213 (42%) 17 (13)   23 (14)  
I Slightly improved 658 (21%) 32 (12)   9 (13)   105 (21%) 36 (13)   9 (12)  
  Unchanged 283 (9%) 38 (13)   0 (10)   33 (6%) 38 (14)   5 (13)  
  Slightly worse 181 (6%) 42 (13)   0 (12)   21 (4%) 41 (13)   3 (13)  
  Much worse 117 (4%) 49 (12)   −3 (12)   11 (2%) 51 (11)   −8 (13)  
  Worse than ever 46 (2%) 59 (15)   −11 (12)   9 (2%) 57 (17)   −7 (15)  
  Missing 799         108        
  All 2464   0.64 (0.31) 0.73* 0.25 0.36 0.50* 419   0.67 (0.30) 0.78* 0.32 (0.34) 0.48*
E Compl.recovered 463 (19%) 0.92 (0.15)   0.47 (0.32)   97 (23%) 0.93 (0.16)   0.51 (0.30)  
Q Much improved 945 (38%) 0.74 (0.17)   0.34 (0.32)   175 (42%) 0.75 (0.16)   0.37 (0.32)  
- Slightly improved 543 (22%) 0.55 (0.26)   0.19 (0.33)   89 (21%) 0.46 (0.29)   0.18 (0.31)  
5 Unchanged 230 (9%) 0.41 (0.31)   0.03 (0.29)   26 (6%) 0.40 (0.30)   0.08 (0.33)  
D Slightly worse 148 (6%) 0.33 (0.32)   0.00 (0.32)   17 (4%) 0.36 (0.30)   0.13 (0.29)  
  Much worse 100 (4%) 0.15 (0.23)   0.15 (0.32)   8 (2%) 0.30 (0.34)   0.02 (0.08)  
  Worse than ever 35 (1%) 0.04 (0.22)   0.24 (0.37)   7 (2%) 0.08 (0.24)   0.03 (0.11)  
  Missing 1395         198        
L All 2988   3.5 (3.0) 0.72* 3.1 (3.3) 0.63* 493   3.2 (2.9) 0.68* 3.5 (3.2) 0.58*
E Compl.Recovered 580 19% 0.6 (1.5)   5.9 (2.5)   112 (23%) 0.6 (2.2)   6.0 (2.5)  
G Much improved 1159 39% 2.5 (2.2)   4.0 (2.7)   208 (42%) 2.6 (2.2)   4.0 (2.7)  
  Slightly improved 640 21% 4.9 (2.2)   1.8 (2.6)   102 (20%) 4.8 (2.4)   1.8 (2.6)  
P Unchanged 275 9% 6.3 (2.1)   0.1 (2.3)   33 (7%) 6.1 (4.7)   0.4 (2.2)  
A Slightly worse 176 6% 6.4 (2.1)   0.7 (2.6)   18 (4%) 5.2 (3.0)   1.0 (2.9)  
I Much worse 114 4% 7.5 (2.1)   −0.5 (2.6)   11 (2%) 6.6 (2.3)   0.4 (3.8)  
N Worse than ever 44 1% 7.7 (2.1)   −0.4 (2.9)   9 (2%) 7.8 (1.9)   0.0 (2.1)  
  Missing 871         124        
B All 3033   3.8 (2.8) 0.76* 3.3 (2.9) 0.62* 507   3.6 (2.8) 0.78* 3.3 (2.9) 0.64*
A Compl. recovered 592 20% 0.6 (1.4)   5.4 (2.5)   117 (23%) 0.7 (2.0)   5.8 (2.5)  
C Much improved 1171 38% 3.0 (2.0)   3.2 (2.5)   214 (42%) 3.0 (2.0)   3.7 (2.5)  
K Slightly improved 648 21% 5.2 (1.9)   1.4 (2.3)   105 (21%) 5.7 (1.7)   1.6 (1.8)  
  Unchanged 278 9% 6.5 (2.0)   0.5 (2.0)   32 (6%) 6.0 (2.0)   1.4 (2.1)  
P Slightly worse 182 6% 6.7 (1.8)   0.1 (2.0)   20 (4%) 6.7 (1.6)   0.3 (1.6)  
A Much worse 116 4% 7.4 (2.1)   −0.1 (2.2)   11 (2%) 7.3 (2.19   −0.2 (1.3)  
I Worse than ever 46 2% 8.3 (1.9)   −0.8 (2.3)   8 (2%) 8.5 (1.3)   −0.4 (1.4)  
N Missing 826         110        
  1. Mean 1 year follow-up scores and mean change scores from baseline to follow-up for ODI, EQ-5D, NRS leg pain, and NRS back pain [positive values indicate decreased disability (ODI), improved health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), and reduced pain (NRS)]. Results are given for all patients, and for patients stratified according to the Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale. The association between the outcome measurements and the GPE responses are given by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (Spearman’s rho)
  2. *p<0.005