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Table 4 Hazard ratios for rheumatoid arthritis phenotypes according to dichotomized cumulative average total fish intake in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 166,013)

From: Association of fish intake and smoking with risk of rheumatoid arthritis and age of onset: a prospective cohort study

  Total fish servings
None to < 1/month (low) ≥1/month (high) p value
HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
All RA
 Cases/person-years 53/185,861 1027/3,678,049  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.84 (0.64–1.11) 0.23
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.85 (0.64–1.13) 0.27
Seropositive RA
 Cases/person-years 34/185,640 638/3,670,434  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.84 (0.59–1.20) 0.34
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.86 (0.60–1.22) 0.39
Seronegative RA
 Cases/person-years 19/185,340 389/3,668,519  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.84 (0.53–1.34) 0.47
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.85 (0.53–1.35) 0.48
All RA among ≤ 55 years
 Cases/person-years 37/134,613 454/2,057,424  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 0.048
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.73 (0.52–1.02) 0.066
Seropositive RA among ≤ 55 years
 Cases/person-years 22/134,452 302/2,053,251  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.83 (0.53–1.29) 0.40
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.85 (0.55–1.32) 0.47
Seronegative RA among ≤ 55 years
 Cases/person-years 15/134,186 152/2,051,358  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.54 (0.31–0.92) 0.024
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.55 (0.32–0.94) 0.029
All RA among > 55 years
 Cases/person-years 16/52,659 573/1,645,311  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 1.13 (0.69–1.87) 0.62
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 1.14 (0.69–1.88) 0.60
  1. aAdjusted for age, questionnaire period, cohort, and total energy intake (continuous)
  2. bMultivariable models were adjusted for age, questionnaire period, cohort, total energy intake (continuous), median household income (quartiles), cigarette smoking (never, past 1–14/day, past ≥15/day, current 1–14/day, current ≥15/day), body mass index category (underweight/normal, overweight, obese), and alcohol intake (never to < 5, 5 to < 10, ≥10 g/day)
  3. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, RA rheumatoid arthritis