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Table 3 Hazard ratios for rheumatoid arthritis phenotypes according to categories of cumulative average total fish intake in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 166,013)

From: Association of fish intake and smoking with risk of rheumatoid arthritis and age of onset: a prospective cohort study

  Total fish servings  
None to < 1/month 1/month to < 1/week 1 to < 2.5/week 2.5 to < 4/week ≥4/week p for trend
HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
All RA
 Cases/person-years 53/185,861 175/705,447 513/1,888,251 200/649,928 139/434,424  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.82 (0.60–1.11) 0.83 (0.62–1.11) 0.87 (0.64–1.19) 0.92 (0.66–1.27) 0.48
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.82 (0.60–1.12) 0.84 (0.63–1.12) 0.89 (0.65–1.22) 0.93 (0.67–1.28) 0.42
Seropositive RA
 Cases/person-years 34/185,640 116/704,320 308/1,884,304 133/648,527 81/433,284  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.86 (0.59–1.27) 0.80 (0.56–1.15) 0.95 (0.64–1.39) 0.87 (0.57–1.31) 0.72
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.86 (0.59–1.27) 0.82 (0.57–1.17) 0.97 (0.66–1.43) 0.88 (0.58–1.33) 0.66
Seronegative RA
 Cases/person-years 19/185,340 59/703,876 205/1,883,542 67/648,136 58/432,966  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.74 (0.44–1.25) 0.88 (0.54–1.41) 0.76 (0.45–1.27) 0.99 (0.59–1.69) 0.48
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.74 (0.44–1.25) 0.88 (0.55–1.42) 0.77 (0.46–1.29) 1.01 (0.59–1.71) 0.45
All RA among ≤ 55 years
 Cases/person-years 37/134,613 113/458,908 213/1,072,596 74/301,548 54/224,372  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.85 (0.59–1.24) 0.64 (0.45–0.91) 0.72 (0.48–1.08) 0.71 (0.46–1.10) 0.25
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.86 (0.59–1.25) 0.66 (0.46–0.94) 0.75 (0.50–1.12) 0.72 (0.47–1.11) 0.29
All RA among > 55 years
 Cases/person-years 16/52,659 62/252,365 300/828,551 126/352,538 85/211,857  
 Age-adjusted modela 1.00 (Ref) 0.82 (0.47–1.42) 1.19 (0.72–1.98) 1.19 (0.70–2.01) 1.30 (0.75–2.23) 0.043
 Multivariable modelb 1.00 (Ref) 0.82 (0.47–1.42) 1.21 (0.73–2.00) 1.21 (0.71–2.05) 1.32 (0.76–2.27) 0.037
  1. There were 1080 cases in 3,863,909 total person-years for all RA analyses. There were 672 cases in 3,856,074 total person-years for seropositive RA analyses
  2. There were 408 cases in 3,853,860 total person-years for seronegative RA analyses. There were 491 cases in 2,192,037 total person-years for all RA among ≤55 years analyses. There were 589 cases in 1,697,970 total person-years for all RA among > 55 years analyses
  3. The exposure period was 1984 to 2012 for cases occurring until 2014 in the NHS; the exposure period was 1991 to 2013 for cases occurring until 2015 in the NHSII
  4. a Adjusted for age, questionnaire period, cohort, and total energy intake (continuous)
  5. b Multivariable models were adjusted for age, questionnaire period, cohort, total energy intake (continuous), median household income (quartiles), cigarette smoking (never, past 1–14/day, past ≥15/day, current 1–14/day, current ≥15/day), body mass index category (underweight/normal, overweight, obese), and alcohol intake (never to < 5, 5 to < 10, ≥10 g/day)
  6. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ration, RA rheumatoid arthritis