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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and laboratory and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry values at the time of bone marrow oedema syndrome diagnosis

From: Identification of vitamin D and other bone metabolism parameters as risk factors for primary bone marrow oedema syndrome

Diagnostic characteristics n (%) or mean ± SD  
Patient history and co-existing diseases
 Nicotine abuse 16/56 (29.6)  
 BMI, kg/m2, n = 65 24.2 ± 4.7
 Thyroid disorders 14/65 (21.5)
 Long-terma PPI medication 11/62 (17.7)
 Long-terma corticosteroid therapy 7/58 (11.9)
Serum and urine osteological laboratory values, n = 56   Reference values
 Phosphate, mmol/l 0.97 ± 0.18 0.77–1.50
 Calcium, mmol/l 2.26 ± 0.10 2.13–2.63
 25-OH-D3, μg/l 22.9 ± 10.3 > 30.0
  > 30.025-OH-D3, μg/l, unsupplemented patients, n = 36 19.0 ± 7.5 > 30.0
 PTH, ng/l 61.2 ± 31.5 17.0–84.0
 DPD, nmol/mmol 7.1 ± 4.1 3.0–7.0
 Bone-AP, μg/l 14.8 ± 11.2 5.2–24.4
 Osteocalcin, μg/l 20.6 ± 12.9 5.4–59.1
Bone metabolism disorders
Supplemented group, n = 20
Sufficient (25-OH-D3 ≥ 30 μg/l) 11 (55)  
 Insufficient (25-OH-D3 20 to < 30 μg/l) 5 (25.0)
 Deficient (25-OH-D3 10 to < 20 μg/l) 4 (20.0)
 Very deficient (25-OH-D3 < 10 μg/l) 0 (0.0)
Unsupplemented group, n = 36
 Sufficient (25-OH-D3 ≥ 30 μg/l) 3 (8.3)  
 Insufficient (25-OH-D3 20 to < 30 μg/l) 12 (33.3)
 Deficient (25-OH-D3 10 to < 20 μg/l) 21 (58.3)
 Very deficient (25-OH-D3 < 10 μg/l) 3 (8.3)
 Secondary hyperparathyroidism, n = 56 12 (21.4)
 Primary hyperparathyroidism, n = 56 1 (1.8)
 PPI-induced hypochlorhydria, n = 56 3 (5.4)
 Osteopenia (lumbar spine T-score ≤ −1.0 and > −2.5), n = 57 27 (47.4)
 Osteoporosis (lumbar spine T-score ≤ −2.5), n = 57 10 (17.5)
Bone mineral density, n = 57
 Z-score LWS −1.1 ± 1.4  
 Z-score left femur −0.8 ± 1.0
 Z-score right femur −0.7 ± 0.9
  1. a At least a year
  2. Bone-AP bone-alkaline phosphatase, BMI body mass index, 25-OH-D3 25-hydroxy vitamin D, DPD deoxypyridinoline, PPI proton pump inhibitor, PTH parathyroid hormone, SD standard deviation