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Table 4 Final model of the associations between fear avoidance beliefs at baseline and unsuccessful outcome at 12-month follow-up

From: Fear avoidance beliefs as a predictor for long-term sick leave, disability and pain in patients with chronic low back pain

Variable Sick leave (n = 113) Disability (n = 286) Pain (n = 284)
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
High fear avoidance beliefs about work, 0–42 1.11* 1.02–1.20 1.03* 1.00–1.06 1.04* 1.01–1.08
Smoking 3.17* 1.02–9.87 1.75* 1.01–3.01   
High pain intensity, 0–30    1.10** 1.06–1.16   
Low pain intensity, 0–30      1.14** 1.08–1.20
Low disability (log), 0–23    1.16** 1.08–1.25   
Duration of low back pain ≥12 months and little physical job demandsa    4.35* 1.22–14.29   
Male and little physical job demandsa      4.00* 1.06–16.67
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, log logarithmic transformed, *p-value < 0.05, **p-value < 0.01, ainteraction
  2. The outcome sick leave adjusted for age, sex, pain intensity, disability, depression, duration of sick leave (log) and the interaction joint physical job demands, employment and sex scores at baseline. The outcome disability adjusted for age, sex, depression (log), smoking, pain intensity, disability and the interaction joint duration of low back pain and physical job demands scores at baseline. The outcome pain adjusted for age, sex, disability, depression (log), duration of low back pain, smoking and the interaction joint sex and physical job demands scores at baseline