Skip to main content

Table 3 Univariate analyses of the association between baseline variables and successful outcome on sick leave, disability and pain

From: Fear avoidance beliefs as a predictor for long-term sick leave, disability and pain in patients with chronic low back pain

Variable Sick leave (n = 161) Disability (n = 369) Pain (n = 363)
OR 95% CI n OR 95% CI n OR 95% CI n
Sex, female 1.17 0.57–2.40 161 1.18 0.78–1.77 369 1.80* 1.19–2.73 363
Age, years 0.98 0.95–1.01 161 1.00 0.98–1.02 369 0.99 0.97–1.01 363
Body Mass Index 0.30L 0.03–2.91 157 0.81 L 0.22–2.96 359 0.33 L 0.09–1.25 353
Education after primary school    159    363    357
 <2 years 1.00    1.00    1.00   
 2–4 years 1.00 0.43–2.32   1.44 0.84–2.48   1.03 0.60–1.78  
 >4 years 0.91 0.08–9.74   2.40 0.80–1.16   1.46 0.51–4.17  
 Other 0.38 0.09–1.69   1.71 0.58–5.05   0.91 0.30–2.73  
Current smoker, no 2.26* 1.06–4.80 159 1.44♦ 0.95–2.19 365 1.72* 1.13–2.63 359
Alcohol, >7 units/week 1.18 0.48–2.86 155 0.79 0.49–1.28 360 1.24 0.76–2.03 355
Physical activity level leisure, little-some 1.07 0.42–2.77 157 0.85 0.52–1.38 362 1.30 0.80–2.12 356
Sick leave, yes 161 1.14 0.75–1.72 365 1.27 0.83–1.92 259
Duration of sick leave, weeks 0.67 L 0.45–1.01 150       
Employment, no 0.49♦ 0.23–1.05 157 0.58* 0.35–0.98 363 0.92 0.56–1.53 357
Compensation case, no 1.52 0.63–3.71 153 1.17 0.66–2.09 350 1.91* 1.04–3.49 345
Physical job demands    156    360    355
 None 1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Little 1.13 0.30–4.33   0.53♦ 0.28–1.02   0.71 0.37–1.36  
 Some 0.84 0.32–2.21   1.03 0.62–1.71   1.01 0.61–1.67  
 Heavy 0.58 0.20–1.67   0.62 0.33–1.17   0.34** 0.17–0.68  
Physical health, 0–100 1.01 0.96–1.06 142 0.99 0.96–1.01 327 0.99 0.96–1.01 322
Mental health, 0–100 1.04♦ 0.99–1.08 142 0.99 0.97–1.00 327 1.00 0.98–1.02 322
Depression, 0–4 0.86 0.56–1.34 158 1.04 L 0.82–1.32 344 1.02 L 0.80–1.29 339
Anxiety, 0–4 2.34 L 0.59–3.87 141 1.03 L 0.81–1.32 318 0.95 L 0.74–1.22 313
Duration low back pain, ≥12 months 0.83 0.39–1.76 152 0.36** 0.23–0.55 350 0.67♦ 0.44–1.02 346
Pain intensity, 0–30 0.97 0.91–1.03 159 0.97♦ 0.93–1.00 366 1.10** 1.05–1.14 363
Age at first episode of low back pain, years 0.98 0.95–1.01 150 1.23 L 0.76–2.00 355 1.02 L 0.63–1.66 349
Family history of low back pain, no 1.26 0.61–2.63 158 1.11 0.73–1.69 363 1.16 0.76–1.77 357
Disability, 0–23 0.99 0.91–1.07 161 1.08** 1.04–1.13 369 1.03 0.99–1.07 363
Fear avoidance beliefs work, 0–42 0.93** 0.88–0.98 145 0.98♦ 0.96–1.00 341 0.98* 0.96–0.99 335
Fear avoidance beliefs physical activity, 0–24 0.97 0.90–1.04 149 1.00 0.96–1.04 346 0.98 0.94–1.02 340
Group, intervention 0.98 0.48–2.02 161 1.15 0.76–1.74 369 1.64* 1.08–2.50 363
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, LLogarithmic transformed, *p-value < 0.05, **p-value < 0.01, ♦p-value < 0.1, p-value < 0.2, removed due to collinearity