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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the total sample of patients and those on sick leave

From: Fear avoidance beliefs as a predictor for long-term sick leave, disability and pain in patients with chronic low back pain

Variable Total sample (n = 559) Number of responders Subgroup on sick leave at baseline (n = 275) Number of Responders
Sex, female, n (%) 263 (47.05) 559 114 (41.45) 275
Age, years, mean (SD) 38.90 (10.42) 559 38.68 (10.75) 275
Body Mass Index, mean (SD) 25.53 (4.47) 543 25.05 (4.63) 267
Education after primary school, n (%)   548   268
 <2 years 123 (22.45)   83 (30.97)  
 2–4 years 370 (67.52)   167 (62.31)  
 >4 years 32 (5.84)   6 (2.24)  
 Other 23 (4.20)   12 (4.48)  
Current smoker, no, n (%) 299 (54.07) 553 123 (45.56) 270
Alcohol, ≤7 units/week, n (%) 412 (76.40) 540 202 (75.94) 266
Physical activity level leisure, n (%)   547   268
 Little-some 424 (77.51)   225 (83.96)  
 Moderate-high 123 (22.49)   43 (16.04)  
Sick leave, yes, n (%) 275 (49.82) 552 275 (100) 268
Duration of sick leave, weeks, mean (SD) 12.45 (15.81) 261 12.47 (15.87) 258
Employment, no, n (%) 127 (23.09) 550 97 (35.93) 270
Compensation case, yes, n (%) 87 (16.35) 532 52 (20.00) 260
Physical job demands, n (%)   542   263
 None 163 (30.07)   61(23.19)  
 Little 78 (14.39)   36 (13.69)  
 Some 198 (36.53)   97 (36.88)  
 Heavy 103 (19.00)   69 (26.34)  
Physical health, 0–100, mean (SD) 50.74 (8.45) 495 49.11 (8.03) 237
Mental health, 0–100, mean (SD) 49.92 (10.32) 495 47.91 (10.26) 237
Depression, 0–4, mean (SD) 1.10 (0.84) 544 1.23 (0.86) 267
Anxiety, 0–4, mean (SD) 0.68 (0.66) 536 0.76 (0.67) 263
Duration of LBPa, <12 months, n (%) 273 (51.41) 531 148 (56.27) 263
Pain intensityb, 0–30, mean (SD) 17.66 (5.66) 559 18.30 (5.62) 271
Age at first episode of LBPb, years, mean (SD) 27.79 (11.74) 542 28.87 (11.79) 261
Family history of LBPa, yes, n (%) 234 (42.70) 548 118 (45.70) 270
Disability, 0–23, mean (SD) 13.75 (4.94) 559 14.62 (4.64) 275
FAB workc, 0–42, mean (SD) 24.31 (11.34) 514 29.55 (9.63) 245
FAB physical activityd, 0–24, mean (SD) 15.46 (5.34) 522 16.41 (3.33) 249
Group, intervention, n (%) 298 (53.31) 559 150 (54.55) 275
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. aLow back pain
  3. bThe back pain questionnaire included 3 separate 11-point numeric rating scales (0–30) comprising the following items: pain at the moment, the worst pain within the past 2 weeks, and the average level of pain within the last 2 weeks. These summed to a total score ranging from 0 points (no back pain at all) to 30 points (worst possible back pain)
  4. cFear avoidance beliefs about work
  5. dFear avoidance beliefs about physical activity