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Table 4 Comparison of lower limb alignment values reported from previous studies

From: Mismatch between femur and tibia coronal alignment in the knee joint: classification of five lower limb types according to femoral and tibial mechanical alignment

  Bellemans et al. (Belgium) Moreland et al. (Caucasian) Jabalameli et al. (Iran) Song et al. (Korea) Tang et al. (Hong Kong) Current study
All Male Female Male All Male Female Female Male Female Male Female
HKAA(°) 1.3 ± 2.3 1.9 ± 2.4 0.8 ± 2.1 1.5 ± 2.0 1.5 ± 2.9 3.0 ± 3.1 0.7 ± 2.7 1.4 ± 2.0 2.2 ± 2.7 2.2 ± 2.5 1.5 ± 3.0 0.8 ± 3.1
mLDFA(°) 87.9 ± 1.7 87.9 ± 1.7 87.9 ± 1.8 88.5 ± 2.0 88.9 ± 3.0 89.2 ± 3.3 88.5 ± 2.7 87.8 ± 1.7 87.3 ± 2.7 86.8 ± 2.5 87.3 ± 2.3 87.2 ± 2.5
mMPTA(°) 87.0 ± 2.1 86.5 ± 2.2 87.6 ± 1.8 87.0 ± 1.6 87.2 ± 2.0 86.4 ± 1.7 88.0 ± 2.0 86.8 ± 1.6 85.1 ± 2.3 84.6 ± 2.5 85.4 ± 2.2 86.2 ± 2.2
AA-MA(°) 4.5 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 0.5 5.8 ± 0.7 5.7 ± 1.2 5.7 ± 1.0 5.7 ± 1.4 6.0 ± 0.7 5.6 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.4 4.9 ± 1.7
KAA(°)      −3.9 ± 3.4 −2.8 ± 3.7 −5.2 ± 2.8     −3.8 ± 2.3 −4.5 ± 2.3
Varus(%) 24.6% 32% 17.2%      20.3%    37.5% 21.6%
  1. HKAA hip–knee–ankle angle, mLDFA mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, mMPTA mechanical medial proximal tibial angle, AA-MA angle between the femoral anatomical axis and the mechanical axis, KAA knee alignment angle