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Table 2 Analysis of lower limb coronal alignment based on sex and age (average age: 41.3 years)

From: Mismatch between femur and tibia coronal alignment in the knee joint: classification of five lower limb types according to femoral and tibial mechanical alignment

Variables All (n = 214) Male (n = 112) Female (n = 102) P 20–50 y/o (n = 127) 51–70 y/o (n = 87) P
HKAA(°) a 1.2 ± 3.1 1.5 ± 3.0 0.8 ± 3.1 0.101 0.5 ± 2.6 2.2 ± 3.4 < 0.001
mLDFA(°) a 87.3 ± 2.4 87.3 ± 2.3 87.2 ± 2.5 0.736 86.9 ± 2.2 87.8 ± 2.6 0.010
mMPTA(°) a 85.8 ± 2.2 85.4 ± 2.2 86.2 ± 2.2 0.013 86.0 ± 2.1 85.5 ± 2.3 0.118
AA-MA(°) a 4.7 ± 1.5 4.5 ± 1.4 4.9 ± 1.7 0.085 4.0 ± 1.1 5.8 ± 1.4 < 0.001
KAA(°) a −4.1 ± 2.3 −3.8 ± 2.3 −4.5 ± 2.3 0.028 −4.1 ± 2.1 −4.3 ± 2.6 0.529
  1. aHKAA hip–knee–ankle angle, mLDFA mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, mMPTA mechanical medial proximal tibial angle, AA-MA angle between femoral anatomical axis and mechanical axis, KAA knee alignment angle