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Table 1 Description of five types of lower limbs (classified according to mLDFA and mMPTA)

From: Mismatch between femur and tibia coronal alignment in the knee joint: classification of five lower limb types according to femoral and tibial mechanical alignment

Group Type/description mLDFAa mMPTAa
Neutral (− 3° ≤ HKAA < 3°) 1. Neutral alignment with normal joint obliquity (valgus of distal femur and varus of proximal tibia within 3°) ≥87° ≥87°
  2. Neutral alignment with high degree of joint line obliquity (valgus of distal femur and varus of proximal tibia above 3°) < 87° < 87°
Varus (HKAA ≥3°) 3. Genu varus with varus of the tibia < 90° < 87°
  4. Genu varus with varus of the tibia and femur ≥90° < 87°
Valgus (HKAA <− 3°) 5. Genu valgus < 87° ≥87°
  1. amLDFA mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, mMPTA mechanical medial proximal tibial angle