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Table 4 An overview of the targets for the interventions, the corresponding intervention components and outcome measuresa

From: GLA:D® Back group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of back pain - development, theories and scientific evidence -

Target Intervention component directed at the target Measured construct (measurement tool)
Knowledge and beliefs
 Pain coherence
 Back Pain Beliefs
 Expectations
 Fear of movement
Patient education
Exercise sessions
Motivation to engage in general physical activity
Illness Perceptions (B-IPQ) [146, 147]
Fear of movement (FABQ) [148, 149]
Skills and performance
 Ability to vary back movements and move freely
 Strength
 Mobility
 Physical capacity
Exercise sessions
Motivation to engage in general physical activity
Perceived ability to perform exercises (single item)
Physical fitness (Self-assessed physical capacity analogue scale) [150]
Muscle endurance [135], flexibility [133, 151], and sit-to-stand [152]
Self-efficacy
 Perceived ability to manage pain
Patient education
Exercise sessions
Motivation to engage in general physical activity
Self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale) [153]
Self-management success
 Daily activities
 Quality of life
 Pain
Patient education
Exercise sessions
Motivation to engage in general physical activity
Disability (Oswestry Disability Index) [154, 155]
General health, social functioning and mental health (SF-36)
Pain interference (B-IPQ) [148, 149, 156]
Pain intensity (NRS 0–10) [157]
System Outcomes
 Health care utilisation
 Sick leave
Patient education
Exercise sessions
Motivation to engage in general physical activity
Visits to health care providers, imaging, pain medication and sick leave (Danish national registries) [158, 159]
  1. aDetails of the effect, evaluation and outcome measures are reported elsewhere (Kongsted A, Ris I, Kjaer P, Vach W, Morso L, Hartvigsen J: GLA:D® Back: Implementation of group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of back pain. Protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study, submitted)