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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Re-infection rates and clinical outcomes following arthrodesis with intramedullary nail and external fixator for infected knee prosthesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lead Author, Publication Date Location Year of study Mean
age (years)
% male Mean
follow up
(months)
Participants
n
Two-stage/ one-stage Surgical implant Re-infections/ persisting infections n (%) Fusion rate %
(time to fusion - months)
Major complications
n
Reoperations
n
Postoperative limb length discrepancy (mm) Quality score
Intramedullary nail
 Hungerer et al., 2017 [26] Germany 2003–2012 68.6 43 53 (12–119) 55 NS Short modular nail 12 (21.8%) NS 13 20 18 9/16
 Friedrich et al., 2017 [23] Germany 2008–2014 70.2 NS 31 (12–74) 37 37/0 Short modular nail 5 (13.5%) NS 2 7 22 10/16
 Hawi et al., 2015 [5] Germany 2002–2012 68.8 63 67 (24–143) 27 0/27 Short modular cemented nail 4 (14.8%) NS 0 3 NS 11/16
 Röhner et al., 2015 [12] Germany 1997–2013 68 31 71 (12–204) 26 26/0 Short modular cemented nail 13 (50%) NS 0 13 NS 10/16
 Miralles-Muñoz et al., 2014 [29] Spain 2001–2010 74.6 14 50 (36–60) 29 29/0 Short modular cemented nail 2 (6.9%) NS 4 3 8 12/16
 Scarponi et al., 2014 [33] Italy 2000–2011 65 47 62 (24–105) 38 38/0 Short modular cementless nail 4 (10.5%) NS 5 5 13 9/16
 Iacono et al., 2013 [10] Italy 2004–2009 69.3 NS 34(13–72) 21 21/0 Short modular cementless nail 3 (14.3%) NS 0 3 8 9/16
 Putman et al., 2013 [31] France 2005–2008 67 NS 50 (28–90) 31 25/6 Short modular cementless nail 6 (19.4%) 68 (NS) 10 3 10 10/16
 Barton et al., 2008 [17] UK 1993–2004 NS NS 53 10 9/1 Short modular nail 1 (10%) 100 (8) 2 2 NS 8/16
 Talmo et al., 2007 [34] USA NS 67 41 48 (13–114) 29 25/4 Long modular cementless nail 4 (13.8%) 83 (6) 2 5 30 11/16
 Bargiotas et al., 2006 [16] USA 1999–2003 68 42 49 (18–72) 12 12/0 Long locked cementless nail 2 (16.6%) 83 (5.5) 2 2 55 10/16
 Crockarell and Mihalko, 2005 [19] USA 1991–2000 70.5 40 68 (24–96) 10 9/1 Long locked cementless nail 1 (10%) 100 (NS) NS NS 37 9/16
 Domingo et al., 2004 [22] Spain 1990–2001 67.8 50 Minimum 1 year 10 10/0 Short locked cementless nail 1 (10%) 90 (5) 2 1 NS 8/16
 Volpi et al., 2004 [35] France 1997–2001 68.6 43 19 12 12/0 Short modular cementless nail 2 (16.6%) 100 (3.6) 1 1 NS 7/16
 Gore and Gassner, 2003 [24] USA 1977–2001 71.5 56 54 (12–288) 16 14/2 Long Kuntscher or modular nail 2 (12.5%)) 87.5 (NS) 3 4 NS 8/16
 Waldman et al., 1999 [36] USA NS 64 38 29 (24–90) 21 21/0 Short modular cementless nail 0 (0%) 95 (6.3) 2 2 NS 8/16
 Lai et al., 1998 [28] Taiwan 1988–1994 68.2 43 47 (18–94) 28 8/20 Short locked cementless nail 1 (3.6%) 93 (5.2) 2 1 25 9/16
 Wilde and Stearns, 1989 [37] USA 1983–1988 65 33 Minimum 24 10 10/0 Long Kuntscher nail 3 (30%) 60 (6.6) 6 6 36 8/16
External fixator
 Balci, 2016 [13] Turkey 1999–2012 67 18 51 17 17/0 Unilateral EF 1 (6%) 94 (7.6) 4 6 29 11/16
 Corona et al., 2013 [18] Spain 2004–2009 81 48 50 (12–81) 21 0/21 Unilateral EF 3 (14%) 81 (10.3) NS NS 47 9/16
 Iacono et al., 2013 [10] Italy 2001–2004 68.5 NS 93(82–110) 10 10/0 Semi circular Hoffmann EF 0 (0%) 90 (6.7) 1 2 45 9/16
 Reddy et al., 2011 [32] India 2003–2010 62.2 63 46 (12–84) 16 3/16 Ilizarov frame 1 (6%) 94 (6.6) 6 6 44 9/16
 Parratten et al., 2007 [30] France 1990–2003 64.8 43 88 (12–162) 14 6/8 2 unilateral EF 0 (0%) 93 (7.3) 2 2 45 9/16
 Klinger et al., 2006 [27] Germany 1990–2002 66.2 61 56 (24–132) 18 11/7 Unilateral EF 1 (6%) 83 (6.3) 3 2 36 9/16
 Domingo et al., 2004 [22] Spain 1990–2001 69.1 45 Minimum 1 year 11 11/0 Unilateral EF (3) 0 (0%) 100 (6.7) 1 0 NS 8/16
Biplanar EF (8) 100 (6.1)
 David et al., 2001 [20] Israel 1988- 65.9 39 41 (18–60) 10 NS Ilizarov frame 0 (0%) 100 (6.4) 1 0 37 8/16
 Hak et al., 1995 [25] USA 1973–1990 58.5 45 43 (12–186) 20 NS Unilateral EF (7) 1 (5%) 57 (7.1) 13 4 NS 8/16
Biplanar EF (13) 62 (7.1)
 De Cloedt et al., 1994 [21] Belgium 1984–1992 67.7 40 68 (14–108) 15 NS 2 unilateral EF 8 (53%) 67 (7.3) NS 8 NS 8/16
  1. NS Not stated, EF External fixator