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Table 3 Unadjusted Spearman’s rho correlations between muscle measures and functional measures

From: Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness may be superior to strength testing in adults with knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

Muscle group WOMAC pain WOMAC stiffness WOMAC function WOMAC total Age Gender BMI Symptom duration
Muscle strength measures
 Symptomatic knee extension −0.42 − 0.18 − 0.35 − 0.36 − 0.10 0.49 * 0.18 0.21
 Asymptomatic knee extension − 0.31 − 0.17 − 0.29 − 0.27 − 0.02 0.41 − 0.20 0.20
 Symptomatic hip abduction − 0.52 * − 0.22 − 0.46 * − 0.47 * − 0.25 0.17 0.01 0.11
 Asymptomatic hip abduction − 0.49 * − 0.28 − 0.51 * −0.51 * − 0.22 0.47 * 0.04 0.10
 Symptomatic hip adduction −0.52 * −0.13 − 0.44 * −0.44 * 0.02 0.36 −0.09 0.07
 Asymptomatic hip adduction −0.51 * −0.25 − 0.54 * −0.54 0.10 0.28 −0.07 −0.08
 Symptomatic ankle plantarflexion −0.46 * −0.06 − 0.49 * −0.47 * − 0.43 * 0.30 − 0.09 0.19
 Asymptomatic ankle plantarflexion −0.46 * −0.18 −.0.42 * − 0.42 * −0.35 0.25 −0.04 0.27
Muscle thickness measures
 Symptomatic quadriceps thickness −0.48 * −0.09 − 0.62 ‡ −0.60 ‡ − 0.35 0.37 − 0.04 0.15
 Asymptomatic quadriceps thickness −0.38 −0.22 − 0.54 * −0.53 * − 0.29 0.51 * − 0.01 0.15
 Symptomatic hip abductor thickness −0.13 −0.09 − 0.14 −0.14 0.05 0.41 * 0.03 −0.10
 Asymptomatic hip abductor thickness −0.20 − 0.02 − 0.25 − 0.22 − 0.05 0.43 * 0.08 −0.10
 Symptomatic hip adductor thickness −0.45 * − 0.11 − 0.47 * −0.44 * − 0.02 0.64 * − 0.30 − 0.06
 Asymptomatic hip adductor thickness −0.45 * − 0.10 − 0.40 −0.38 − 0.04 0.58 ‡ − 0.27 − 0.11
 Symptomatic calf thickness − 0.39 − 0.04 − 0.39 −0.37 − 0.14 0.49 * − 0.12 −0.05
 Asymptomatic calf thickness −0.37 −0.03 − 0.37 −0.35 − 0.15 0.47 * − 0.14 −0.08
  1. WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Arthritis Index, BMI Body Mass Index
  2. Strength measured in torque (Nm) normalized to body weight (kg), ie Nm/kg
  3. Values indicated by * with bold text indicates significance at 0.05 level, ‡ with bold text indicates significance at 0.01 level