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Table 2 Characteristics of participants in STAART and comparator studies of pain CST and CBT for patients with osteoarthritis

From: Pain coping skills training for African Americans with osteoarthritis study: baseline participant characteristics and comparison to prior studies

Participant Characteristic STAART Bennell et al, 2017 [45] Bennell et al, 2016 [55] Rini et al, 2015 [57] Broderick et al, 2014 [58] Helminen, 2014 [59] Vitiello, 2013 [60] Somers et al, 2012 [25] Hurley, 2007 [61] Keefe et al, 1996 [46] Keefe et al, 1990 [62]
Sociocultural Environment
 Geographic Region United States (Central North Carolina) Australia (7 of 8 states) Australia (Melbourne and Brisbane) United States (Central North Carolina) United States (New York, Virginia and North Carolina) Finland (Kuopio, Eastern Finland) United States (Washington State) United States (Central North Carolina) United Kingdom (Southeast London) United States (Central North Carolina) United States (Central North Carolina)
 Agea 59.0 ± 10.3 61.2 ± 7.1 63.4 ± 8.1 67.6 ± 9.4 67.2 ± 9.5 CBT: 64.5 ± 7.3
Control Group: 62.8 ± 7.2
73.0 ± 8.0 58.0 ± 10.4 Individual Rehab: 66 (50-91) f
Group Rehab:68 (51-84)
Control Group: 67 (51-89)
62.6 ± 10.1 64.0 ± 11.5
 Female 49% 56% 60% 81% 77% 69% 78% 79% 70% 61% 72%
 Race 100% African American -- -- 70% White
29% African American
2% Other
13% Non-white -- 9% Non-white 38% Non-white -- -- --
 Ethnicity 3% Hispanic/Latino -- -- 11% Hispanic/ Latino -- --   -- -- -- --
 Education 75% Above High School 75% Above High School 61% Above High School 71% Above High School 72% Above High School -- -- 86% Above High School -- -- --
 Work Status 35% Currently Working 57% Currently Working 51% Currently Working 21% Currently Working 30% Currently Working 68% Senior High/ Vocational School or more 86% Above High School -- -- -- --
 Marital Status 41% Married/Living with Partner -- -- 62% Married/Living with Partner 63% Married/Living with Partner 21% Currently Working
66% Married/Living with Partner
78% Retired -- -- -- --
Biological Vulnerability & Mechanisms
 WOMAC Total Scorea b53.0 ± 17.8
c53.7 ± 19.1
-- -- -- -- -- -   bIndividual Rehab: 37.5±19.4
Group Rehab: 39.1±19.7
Control Group: 38.6±19.6
-- --
 WOMAC Pain Subscale Scorea b11.0 ± 3.9
c55.0 ± 19.4
b CST + Exercise: 9.0 ± 2.4
Control: 9.2 ± 2.5
b Exercise: 8.6 ± 2.7
CST: 8.7 ± 2.8
CST + Exercise: 9.0 ± 2.8
-- c 54.8 (17.4) c CBT: 57.6 (53.9−61.3) eControl Group: 56.4 (52.9−60.0) -- cCST+Weight Management (WM): 47.7 (42.1-55.3) e
WM: 42.6 (37.7-47.5)
CST: 42.8 (42.1-53.3)
Control Group: 43.4 (37.4-49.5)
bIndividual Rehab: 7.4 ±4.0
Group Rehab: 7.69±4.1
Control Group: 7.7±4.0
-- --
 WOMAC Function Subscale Scorea b37.0 ± 13.2
c 53.7 ± 19.7
b CST + Exercise: 33.1 ± 8.0
Control: 32.5 ± 8.3
b Exercise: 34.3 ± 7.2
CST: 35.0 ± 7.4
CST + Exercise: 35.6 ± 7.3
-- c 54.6 (17.1) c CBT: 53.0 (48.1−57.9) e
Control Group: 48.4 (43.1−53.7)
-- cCST+ WM: 47.7 (42.2-53.1) e
WM: 44.3 (39.5-49.0)
CST: 46.2 (41.1-51.3)
Control Group: 46.1 (39.7-52.5)
bIndividual Rehab: 26.4±14.7
Group Rehab: 27.9 ±14.7
Control Group: 27.2±14.6
-- --
 Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2- Pain Subscalea -- -- -- Internet CST: 4.8 ± 1.7
Control Group: 5.1 ± 1.8
5.1 ± 2.1    CST+WM: 5.8 (5.3-6.2)
WM: 5.3 (4.9–5.7)
CST: 5.6 (5.2–6.0)
Control Group: 5.5 (4.9–6.1)
-- CST: 5.4 ± 2.1
Spouse Assisted CST: 5.1 ± 1.7
Control Group: 5.2 ± 2.2
CST: 5.4 ± 2.1
Arthritis Education: 5.6 ± 1.9
Control Group: 5.8 ± 1.62
 Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 - Physical Function Subscalea -- -- -- Internet CST: 1.7 ± 1.3
Control Group: 1.8 ± 1.0
1.8 ± 1.2 -- -- CST+WM: 1.7 (1.4–1.9)
WM: 1.8: (1.1–1.7)
CST: 1.6: (1.3–1.8)
Control Group: 1.6 (1.2–1.9)
- CST: 1.8 ± 0.9
Spouse Assisted CST: 1.7 ± 1.1
Control Group: 1.6 ± 0.7
CST: 2.0 ± 1.0
Arthritis Education: 2.1 ± 1.22
Control Group: 1.9 ± 1.2
 Years with Arthritis Symptomsa 13.1 ± 10.0 CST + Exercise: 15% < 2 years, 51% 2-10 years, 34% >10 years
Control: 32% < 2 years, 47% 2-10 years, 20% >10 years
Exercise: 6.0 (3-10)d
CST: 5.5 (4-10)
CST + Exercise: 5.5 (2-10)
-- 13.8 ± 9.9 CBT: 8.9 ± 8.7
Control Group: 6.6 ± 4.5
-- -- Individual Rehab: 7 (3–15) d
Group Rehab: 5 (2.5–11)
Control Group: 6 (3–15)
-- --
 Number of Comorbiditiesa 8.5 ± 3.9 -- -- 1.3 ± 1.1 -- CBT: 5.3 ± 2.8
Control Group: 4.9 ± 3.6
-- -- -- -- --
 BMI, kg/m2 a 35.2 ± 8.2 31.4 ± 8.0 31.3 ± 6.1 -- 33.4 ± 8.0 CBT: 30.1 ± 6.0
Control Group: 29.9 ± 6.3
-- CST+ WM: 34.1 (33.0–35.2)
WM: 33.5 (32.4–34.7)
CST: 34.4 (33.3–35.5)
Control Group: 34.1 (32.8–35.4)
Individual Rehab: 30.0 (18–45) f
Group Rehab: 30.18 (20–50)
Control Group: 30.3 (20–51)
-- --
Health Behaviors and Coping Strategies
 Coping Skills Questionnaire – Total Coping Attemptsa 93.9 ± 36.6 CST + Exercise: 61.7 ± 24.9
Control: 65.7 ± 24.9
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- CST: 69.2 ± 26.7
Spouse Assisted CST: 67.8 ± 23.2
Control Group: 58.9 ± 22.3
--
 Coping Skills Questionnaire – Catastrophizing Subscale a 11.4 ± 7.6 -- -- -- 7.0 ± 6.4 -- -- CST+WM: 7.4 (5.5–9.3)
WM: 6.6 (4.8–8.2)
CST: 7.2 (5.5–8.9)
Control Group: 6.9 (4.9–8.9)
-- -- --
 Pain Catastrophizing Scalea 19.8 ± 12.3 CST + Exercise: 8.8 ± 9.2
Control: 10.1 ± 9.6
Exercise: 14.9 ± 8.1
CST: 14.8 ± 9.3
CST+ Exercise: 14.4 ± 9.7
-- -- CBT: 16.9 (13.8-20.0) e
Control Group: 13.5 (10.7-16.2)
--   -- -- --
 Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scalea 5.9 ± 2.0 --. -- Internet CST: 6.7 ± 1.8
Control Group: 6.3 ± 2.1
6.0 ± 1.9 -- -- -- -- -- --
  1. CST Coping Skills Training, CBT Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, BMI Body Mass Index
  2. aMean (standard deviation unless otherwise noted); bWOMAC Likert scale version; cWOMAC Visual Analog Scale or Likert scores transformed to 0-100 scale; dMedian (Interquartile Range); e95% Confidence Intervals; f Mean (range)