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Table 6 Adapted Grading31 of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation [GRADE] table for systematic reviews with meta-analysis of prognostic studies for positive outcome across a range of measures

From: Physical prognostic factors predicting outcome following lumbar discectomy surgery: systematic review and narrative synthesis

GRADE factor
  Factors that may reduce the quality Factors that may increase the quality  
Prognostic factor
[pre-operative measures]
Number of participants Number of studies Number of cohorts Estimated effect size [95% CI] Phase (design) Study limitations Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Publication bias Moderate/ large effect size Dose effect Overall quality
Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] 399 2 2 Unclear 1 x x x x x +
Very low
Duration of back pain 360 2 2 Unclear 1 x x x x +
Very low
Duration of leg pain 713 5 5 Unclear 1 x x x ++
Low
Severity leg pain 488 3 3 Unclear 1 x x x ++
Low
Severity back pain 399 2 2 Unclear 1 x x x x +
Very low
EuroQol-5 Dimension [EQ-5D] 140 1 1 Unclear 1 x x x x +
Very low
Ipsilateral Straight Leg Raise [SLR] 100 1 1 Unclear 1 x x x x x x +
Very low
Forward bend 100 1 1 Unclear 1 x x x X x x +
Very low
  1. GRADE factors: , no serious limitations; X, serious limitations [or not present for moderate/large effect size]; unclear, unable to rate item based on available information. For overall quality of evidence: +, very low; ++, low; +++, moderate; ++++, high