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Table 3 Study characteristics

From: Physical prognostic factors predicting outcome following lumbar discectomy surgery: systematic review and narrative synthesis

Study Country Characteristics of Participants Follow-up Physical Prognostic factors Outcome measures
Divecha et al., 2014 United Kingdom n = 89
Age:
25–79, mean 48.6
Gender:
Male n = 46 [51.7%] Female n = 43 [48.3%]
1 year
n = 32 [35%]
• Pre-operative leg pain [% of pain that was radicular, calculated from the Core Outcome Measures Index [COMI] • COMI score – patient completed assessment through Spine Tango. Includes questions on the severity of leg and back pain.
• Definition of outcome unclear for multivariate analyses
Fisher et al., 2004 Canada n = 82
Age:
17–83, mean 42.2
Gender:
Male n = 52 [63.4%] Female n = 30 [36.6%]
1 year
n = 71 [87%]
• Pre-operative duration of leg pain in months • Health Related Quality Of Life [HRQOL] outcome comprising:
a. North American Spine Society instruments: Neurogenic Symptom Score and Pain/Disability Score
b. Short Form-36 [SF-36] questionnaire
Lewis et al., 1987
(and Weir, 1979)
Canada n = 100
Agea:
Mean [SD] 41.7 [1]
Gender:
Male 75%
Female 25%
1 year
N = 91 [91%]
5–10 years
n = 81 [81%]
• Pre-operative duration of leg pain in months
• Ipsilateral straight leg raise (detail of measurement not reported)
• Forward bend (detail of measurement tool not reported)
• Relief of back pain
• Relief of leg pain
• No multivariate analyses
Nygaard et al., 2000 Norway n = 132
Agea:
> 18
Gender:
Not reported
1 year
n = 132 [100%]
• Pre-operative duration of leg pain in months
• Pre-operative duration of back pain in months
• Clinical Overall Score, calculated from 40% weighting pain, 20% clinical examination, 20% functional status [Oswestry Disability Index, ODI] and 20% analgesia
Silverplats et al., 2010 Sweden n = 171
Agea:
Mean[SD] 39 [11]
Gender:
Male n = 95 [55.6%] Female n = 76 [44.4%]
2 years
n = 154 [90%]
Mean[SD] long term 7.3 [1.0] years
Range 5.1–9.3 years
n = 140 [81%]
• Pre-operative leg pain - recorded with three 0–100 Visual Analogue Scale [VAS] representing ‘pain when as worst’, ‘pain when as least’ and ‘pain right now’. Mean value of the three scales recorded
• Pre-operative back pain - recorded with three 0–100 VAS representing ‘pain when as worst’, ‘pain when as least’ and ‘pain right now’. Mean value of the three scales recorded
• Pre-operative duration of leg pain in months
• Pre-operative ODI- self complete questionnaire 0–100
Primary outcomes:
• MacNab classification of post-operative outcome [at 2 years] with 4 categories of outcome – excellent, good, fair, poor but unclear how applied as dichotomized outcome in multivariate analyses
• Satisfaction with treatment [satisfied, partly, not satisfied, both follow up points]
Secondary outcomes:
• Change in leg pain [improved, no improvement, worse]
• Change in back pain [improved, no improvement, worse]
Silverplats et al., 2011 Sweden n = 117
Age:
18–66, mean 39
Gender:
Male n = 63 [54%]
Female n = 54 [46%]
Range 5–8 years
2 years 82%
7 years 76%
• Pre-operative duration of leg pain in months
• Pre-operative leg pain [detail of measurement not reported]
• Pre-operative back pain [detail of measurement not reported]
• Pre-operative EuroQol-5 Dimension [EQ-5D] score for HRQOL self-completion questionnaire 0–100
• Change in EQ- 5D score
Solberg et al., 2005 Norway n = 228
Age:
Mean[SD] 41 [11]
Gender:
Male n = 114 [63.3%] Female n = 66 [36.7%]
1 year
n = 180 [78.9%]
• Pre-operative ODI score - self complete questionnaire 0–100
• Pre-operative duration of leg pain in months
• Pre-operative duration of back pain in months
• Pre-operative leg pain 0–100 VAS no pain to worst conceivable pain
• Pre-operative back pain 0–100 VAS no pain to worst conceivable pain
Primary outcome:
• ODI score classified as:
a. deterioration [increased ODI] or no deterioration [decreased/unchanged ODI]
b. poor [ODI > 39] or good [ODI < 40]
Secondary outcomes:
• VAS back pain
• VAS leg pain
  1. a After communication with the authors it was confirmed that all participants were ≥ 16 years old
  2. NOTE: Silverplats et al. 2010 and 2011 reported as two separate rows for clarity of prognostic factors and outcomes