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Table 1 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

From: Open reduction internal fixation vs non-operative management in proximal humerus fractures: a prospective, randomized controlled trial protocol

Inclusion Criteria
 1. Displaced 3-part proximal humerus fractures by the Neer classification; or displaced 4-part proximal humeral fractures by the Neer classification that are deemed amenable to surgical internal fixation
 2. > 60 years of age
 3. Low energy mechanism of injury
 4. Acute fracturea
Exclusion Criteria
 1. 4-part proximal humerus fractures that are not deemed amenable to surgical fixationb; fractures that are better suited to treatment with arthroplasty
 2. Isolated greater tuberosity fractures
 3. Ipsilateral upper extremity significant injury, concomitant fracture or polytrauma
 4. Open fracture
 5. Previous ipsilateral shoulder surgery
 6. Patients with active worker’s compensation claimsc
 7. Active joint or systemic infection
 8. Patients with convulsive disorders, collagen diseases, and any other conditions that might affect the mobility of the shoulder joint
 9. Major medical illnessd
 10. Unable to speak or read English/French
 11. Psychiatric illness that precludes informed consent
 12. Unwilling to be followed for 2 years
  1. a <3 weeks
  2. bdue to osteopenic bone, thin head or tuberosity fragments
  3. cdue to the expectation of lower rates of success in this patient population
  4. dlife expectancy less than 2 years, unacceptably high operative risk, or not medically cleared by preoperative anesthesia consult