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Table 1 Sample characteristics and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among school children, Ethiopia

From: Musculoskeletal pain and associated factors among Ethiopian elementary school children

Variables Sample totals Musculoskeletal pain
    Yes No
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
All participants 723 (100%) 451 (62.4%) 272 (37.6)
Age (in years)
 5–10 272 (37.6%) 173 (23.9%) 99 (13.7%)
 11–15 397 (54.9%) 238 (32.9%) 159 (22.0%)
  > 15 54 (7.5%) 40 (5.5%) 14 (1.9%)
Sex
 Male 300 (41.5%) 182 (25.2%) 118 (16.3%)
 Female 423 (58.5%) 269 (37.2%) 154 (21.3%)
Height (in cm) as mean (SD) 133.1 (13.7) 131.9 (13.2) 135.1 (14.4)
Weight (in kg) as mean (SD) 30.4 (8.7) 29.7 (8.5) 31.5 (8.9)
BMI children adjusted percentiles
 Underweight < 5% 148 (20.5%) 98 (13.6%) 50 (6.9%)
 Healthy weight 5–85% 524 (72.5%) 324 (44.8%) 200 (27.7%)
 Overweight 85–95% 41 (5.7%) 24 (3.3%) 17 (2.4%)
 Obese 95% 10 (1.4%) 5 (0.7%) 5 (0.7%)
Type of school
 Governmental 497 (68.9%) 336 (46.5%) 161 (22.3%)
 Private 226 (31.3%) 115 (15.9%) 111 (15.4%)
School grade
 Grade 1–4 380 (52.6%) 240 (33.2%) 140 (19.4%)
 Grade 5–8 343 (47.4%) 211 (29.2%) 132 (18.3%)
Mode of Transport
 Walking 546 (75.5%) 368 (50.9%) 178 (24.6%)
 School bus 115 (15.9%) 49 (6.8%) 66 (9.1%)
 Public transport 14 (1.9%) 6 (0.8%) 8 (1.1%)
 Private transport 48 (6.6%) 28 (3.8%) 20 (2.8%)
Method of carrying school supplies
 Backpack 587 (81.2%) 363 (50.2%) 224 (31.0%)
 Single strap 93 (12.9%) 58 (8.0%) 35 (4.8%)
 Handbag 6 (0.8%) 2 (0.3%) 4 (0.6%)
 Without bag in hand 37 (5.1%) 28 (3.9%) 9 (1.2%)
Preference of backpack carrying (n = 587)
 Right side 10 (1.7%) 9 (1.5%) 1 (0.2%)
 Left side 2 (0.3%) 2 (0.3%) 0 (0%)
 Both shoulder together 575 (98.0%) 352 (48.7%) 223 (30.8%)
Preference of single strap carrying (n = 93)
 Right shoulder 64 (68.8%) 41 (44.1%) 23 (24.7%)
 Left shoulder 18 (19.4%) 10 (10.8%) 8 (8.6%)
 Alternatively(Left/Right) 11 (11.8%) 7 (7.5%) 4 (4.3%)
Walking duration
 No walking 177 (24.5%) 83 (11.5%) 94 (13.0%)
  < 20 min 50 (6.9%) 16 (2.2%) 34 (4.7%)
  ≥ 20 min 496 (68.6%) 352 (48.7%) 144 (19.9%)
Bag weight in % of bodyweight
 0–10% 250 (34.6%) 142 (19.6%) 108 (14.9%)
 11–20% 380 (52.6%) 240 (33.2%) 140 (19.4%)
  > 20% 93 (12.9%) 69 (9.5%) 24 (3.3%)