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Table 3 Association of risk factors for hip/knee osteoarthritis with persistent knee/hip pain (n = 2661)

From: Association of osteoarthritis risk factors with knee and hip pain in a population-based sample of 29–59 year olds in Denmark: a cross-sectional analysis

  Women Men
Univariate RR (95% CI) Adjusteda RR (95% CI) Univariate RR (95% CI) Adjusteda RR (95% CI)
29–39 years n = 250   n = 180  
BMI (kg/m2) 1.02 (0.98–1.07) 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 1.02 (0.94–1.10)
Leisure time physical activity
 High and moderate intensity activities Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Low intensity activities 1.11 (0.59–2.07) 1.22 (0.68–2.20) 1.02 (0.56–1.86) 1.21 (0.67–2.19)
 Sedentary 1.62 (0.81–3.24) 1.48 (0.75–2.93) 1.01 (0.48–2.14) 1.28 (0.61–2.68)
Previous knee/hip injury 3.24 (2.07–5.06) 3.05 (1.84–5.05) 2.39 (1.41–4.03) 2.34 (1.23–4.47)
Previous knee/hip surgery 2.03 (1.19–3.46) 0.85 (0.43–1.71) 2.10 (1.19–3.70) 1.22 (0.57–2.62)
Family history of osteoarthritis
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 I don’t know 3.12 (1.25–7.78) 2.41 (1.00–5.84) 1.26 (0.59–2.68) 1.39 (0.68–2.84)
 Yes 3.84 (1.70–8.68) 2.92 (1.32–6.45) 1.48 (0.79–2.77) 1.31 (0.71–2.44)
40–49 years n = 461   n = 350  
BMI (kg/m2) 1.07 (1.04–1.11) 1.06 (1.02–1.10) 1.06 (1.00–1.11) 1.04 (0.99–1.10)
Leisure time physical activity
 High and moderate intensity activities Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Low intensity activities 1.01 (0.71–1.43) 0.85 (0.62–1.15) 1.34 (0.83–2.16) 1.32 (0.83–2.09)
 Sedentary 1.38 (0.91–2.08) 0.99 (0.66–1.48) 1.69 (0.95–3.00) 1.45 (0.80–2.63)
Previous knee/hip injury 2.82 (2.15–3.69) 2.73 (2.01–3.70) 2.57 (1.70–3.88) 2.55 (1.57–4.14)
Previous knee/hip surgery 1.74 (1.24–2.44) 0.87 (0.56–1.37) 1.70 (1.08–2.67) 0.87 (0.49–1.55)
Family history of osteoarthritis
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 I don’t know 1.59 (0.98–2.57) 1.44 (0.93–2.23) 2.28 (1.23–4.22) 2.01 (1.10–3.68)
 Yes 1.87 (1.28–2.71) 1.53 (1.09–2.15) 2.28 (1.36–3.82) 2.00 (1.20–3.29)
50–59 years n = 786   n = 634  
BMI (kg/m2) 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 1.07 (1.03–1.12) 1.04 (1.00–1.09)
Leisure time physical activity
 High and moderate intensity activities Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Low intensity activities 1.15 (0.88–1.51) 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 1.23 (0.94–1.61) 1.19 (0.93–1.53)
 Sedentary 1.35 (0.94–1.92) 1.11 (0.77–1.59) 1.23 (0.84–1.81) 1.18 (0.82–1.69)
Previous knee/hip injury 1.97 (1.62–2.41) 1.64 (1.31–2.06) 2.90 (2.29–3.67) 2.61 (1.97–3.45)
Previous knee/hip surgery 1.79 (1.43–2.24) 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 1.92 (1.52–2.42) 0.97 (0.72–1.31)
Family history of osteoarthritis
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 I don’t know 1.46 (1.02–2.09) 1.33 (0.94–1.88) 1.92 (1.38–2.68) 1.57 (1.15–2.14)
 Yes 2.05 (1.56–2.71) 1.76 (1.34–2.31) 2.12 (1.58–2.83) 1.63 (1.23–2.15)
  1. aAdjusted for BMI, leisure time physical activity, previous knee/hip injury, previous knee/hip surgery and family history of osteoarthritis
  2. RR Risk Ratio, BMI body mass index
  3. Figures in bold represent statistical significant effects (p < 0.05)