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Table 3 Results of meta-analysis and subgroup analyses of the included studies

From: The efficacy and safety of combined administration of intravenous and topical tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Results (Combined vs. IV groups) No.of studies / knee P Effect Size  
MD/RR 95% CI Heterogeneity p (I2) Model
1. Total blood loss
 All studies 5/651 0.0003 −156.34 241.51 to −71.18 0.002 (77%) Random
Tourniquet or Non-tourniquet
 Tourniquet 3/471 0.05 − 108.68 − 217.44 to 0.08 0.005 (81%) Random
 Non-tourniquet 2/179 0.0008 − 251.30 −398.40 to − 104.19 0.17 (47%) Fixed
Topical TXA dose       
 ≤ 1.5 g 2/284 0.10 −54.93 −119.43 to 9.57 0.33 (0%) Fixed
 >1.5 g 3/367 <  0.00001 − 209.39 − 255.95 to − 162.83 0.36 (1%) Fixed
Number of IV TXA       
 Single dose 2/244 0.13 −210.91 − 485.30 to 63.47 0.03 (80%) Random
 ≥ 2 doses 3/407 0.005 − 147.43 −251.16 to −43.69 0.002 (84%) Random
2. Maximum hemoglobin drop
 All studies 4/591 0.003 −0.56 −0.93 to −0.19 <  0.00001 (90%) Random
Tourniquet or Non-tourniquet
 Tourniquet 3/472 0.05 −0.52 −1.04 to 0.00 <  0.00001 (92%) Random
 Non-tourniquet 1/119 <  0.00001 −0.68 − 0.88 to − 0.48
Topical TXA dose
 ≤ 1.5 g 2/284 0.006 −0.21 −0.35 to − 0.06 0.17 (47%) Fixed
 >1.5 g 2/307 <  0.00001 −0.78 −0.99 to − 0.56 0.17 (47%) Fixed
Number of IV TXA       
 Single dose 1/184 0.03 −0.17 −0.33 to − 0.01
 ≥ 2 doses 3/407 <  0.00001 −0.73 −0.93 to − 0.54 0.21 (36%) Fixed
3. Transfusion requirements
 All studies 5/651 0.19 0.48 0.16 to 1.44 0.69 (0%) Fixed
Tourniquet or Non-tourniquet
 Tourniquet 3/472 0.70 0.75 0.17 to 3.26
 Non-tourniquet 2/179 0.16 0.28 0.05 to 1.64 0.89 (0%) Fixed
Topical TXA dose
 ≤ 1.5 g 3/344 0.50 0.64 0.17 to 2.37 0.65 (0%) Fixed
 >1.5 g 2/307 0.21 0.25 0.03 to 2.21
Number of IV TXA
 Single dose 2/244 0.50 0.64 0.17 to 2.37 0.65 (0%)  
 ≥ 2 doses 3/407 0.21 0.25 0.03 to 2.21
4. Drainage volume 3/334 0.0004 −43.54 −67.59 to −19.48 0.34 (7%) Fixed
5. DVT 6/701 0.99 1.01 0.14 to 7.12 0.34 (0%) Fixed
  1. Abbreviation: RR, risk ratio; MDs, mean differences; IV, Intravenous; DVT, deep venous thrombosis