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Table 3 Linear regression of disability after treatment (PSFS) and potential prognostic factors

From: Emotional distress was associated with persistent shoulder pain after physiotherapy: a prospective cohort study

  Simple regression Final multiple regression model b N = 130
  B (95% CI) P-value B (95% CI) P-value
Emotional distress (HSCL-25) − 1.62 (− 2.43 to − 0.81) P < 0.001   
Pre-treatment pain intensity (NPRS) −0.16 (− 0.36 to 0.04) P = 0.123   
Pre-treatment disability (PSFS) 0.45 (0.24 to 0.66) P < 0.001 0.32 (0.10 to 0.53) P = 0.004
Duration of pain
 0–3 months ª     
 4–12 months −0.12 (−1.43 to 1.19) P = 0.859 −0.60 (− 1.81 to 0.61) P = 0.327
  > 12 months −1.23 (− 2.39 to − 0.06) P = 0.039 −1.17 (− 2.24 to − 0.11) P = 0.031
Use of pain relieving drugs (0,1) −1.68 (− 2.72 to − 0.65) P = 0.002   
Concomitant neck pain (0,1) − 1.47 (−2.36 to − 0.59) P = 0.001 −1.14 (− 2.01 to − 0.28) P = 0.010
Number of painful sites (0,1) −0.97 (− 2.15 to 0.21) P = 0.106   
Age −0.02 (− 0.05 to 0.01) P = 0.191   
Sex (0,1) −0.54 (− 1.53 to 0.45) P = 0.283   
BMI −0.08 (− 0.21 to 0.05) P = 0.235   
Education (0,1) 1.20 (0.25 to 2.15) P = 0.014 0.94 (0.03 to 1.84) P = 0.042
Work status (0,1) 2.04 (0.90 to 3.18) P = 0.001 1.13 (−0.15 to 2.41) P = 0.083 c
Relationship status (0,1) 0.04 (−0.87 to 0.95) P = 0.928   
Smoking (0,1) −1.64 (−3.19 to −0.08) P = 0.039   
  1. Duration of treatment was not associated with disability after treatment (P = 0.407)
  2. a Reference category
  3. b Adjusted for age and sex
  4. c Before the model was adjusted for age and sex, work status was associated with disability after treatment (P < 0.05)
  5. PSFS = Patient Specific Functional Scale. HSCL-25 = Hopkins Symptom Checklist – 25. NPRS = Numeric Pain Rating Scale
  6. Use of pain relieving drugs (0: < once a week, 1: ≥ once a week). Concomitant neck pain (0: no, 1: yes). Number of painful sites (0: ≤ 2 painful sites, 1: > 2 painful sites). Sex (0: male, 1: female). Education (0: ≤ 13 years, 1: College / University). Work status (0: not working, 1: working full time, part time or being in education). Relationship status (0: not in a relationship, 1: in a relationship). Smoking (0: no, 1: yes)