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Table 2 Characteristics of longitudinal articles included in the review (n = 8)a

From: The association between body fat and musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study / country / reference Follow-up time Sample size, n Age, y BMI, kg/m2
(Baseline)
Body composition assessment Parameter investigated Body composition (Baseline) OR (CI)
Multi-site pain (0–7 joints)
 Pan, Australia [35]d 2.6 and 5.1 years 336 widespread pain, 137 no pain Baseline 63.3 (7.7) widespread pain, 62.2 (7.2) no pain Baseline 28.8 (5.3) widespread pain, 26.2 (3.9) no pain DXA Total fat mass 30.0 (9.5) kg, 25.0 (7.1) kg 1.06 (1.02–1.10)
Incident low-back pain
 Hussain, Australia [56] 5 years No intensity: 900
Low intensity: 3085
High intensity: 1001
No disability: 3061
Low disability: 651
High disability: 482
49.2 (10.9) 26.6 (4.7) BIA Body fat percentage Pain intensity
No: 31.7 (11.8) %
Low: 32.6 (11.6) %
High 36.2 (13.3) %
Pain disability
No: 32.1 (11.5) %
Low: 33.7 (12.6) %
High 37.4 (13.3) %
Men
Low intensity: 1.28 (1.09–1.27)
High Intensity: 1.45 (1.19–1.77)
Low disability: 1.11 (0.92–1.32)
High disability: 1.37 (1.10–1.72)
Women
Low intensity: 1.41 (1.25–1.59)
High intensity: 1.39 (1.22–1.57)
Low disability: 1.20 (1.07–1.35)
High disability: 1.48 (1.31–1.68)
 Dario, Spain [57] 4 years 314 (all women) 53.7 (7.0), range 43–71 27.3 (4.0) BIA 34.1 (7) % Chronic pain: 0.87 (0.66–1.14)
Activity-limiting pain: 0.85 (0.62–1.53)
Care-seeking due to pain: 0.79 (0.59–1.05)
 Hashimoto, Japan [58] >  20 years 1152 (all men) 28.0 (4.6) 22.6 (2.7) Skin fold 14.7 (3.5) % Q1: referent
Q2: 0.86 (0.43–1.71)
Q3: 1.46 (0.79–2.72)
Q4: 2.12 (1.13–3.98)
Increasing knee pain
 Jin, Australia [55] 5.1 years 767 (380 women) 62.4 (7.2) pain increase
61.9 (7.0) no pain increase
29.1 (5.3) pain increase
27.3 (4.3) no pain increase
DXA Body fat percentage Pain increase: 30.2 (7.8) %, no pain increase: 27.0 (7.8) % 1.36 (1.20–1.55)c
Incident foot pain
 Butterworth, Australia [19] 3 years 51 (37 women), 11 incident pain, 40 no pain 48.3 (9.8) incident pain, 49.5 (7.9) no pain 29.6 (7.9) incident pain, 26.3 (5.4) no pain DXA FMI 12.1 (6.4) kg/m2 incident pain, 8.7 (4.2) kg/m2 no pain 1.28 (1.04–1.57)
Future foot pain
 Walsh, Australia [16] 4 years 1066 64.6 (10.3) 28.4 (5.1) DXA FMI 10.2 (3.9) kg/m2 1.06 (1.02–1.11)
Multi-site injuries
 Kodesh, Israel [54] 3 months 158 (all women) 19.0 (18.1–20.2) 20.8 (16.1–32.0) Skin fold Body fat percentageb Injured
23.7 (20.5–29.2) %
Non injured
22.5 (14.9–31.5) %
1.16 (1.00–1.34)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, kg kilograms, m2 metres squared, Q quartile, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, FMI fat mass index, BIA bioelectrical impedance analysis
  2. aValues are mean (SD) unless otherwise stated
  3. bmedian (range)
  4. cRelative risk (CI)
  5. dcross-sectional and longitudinal study