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Table 3 Comparison of physical functions between the no HV group and the HV group, between the no HV-mild HV group and the moderate-severe HV group, and between the no HV or painless HV group and the painful HV group after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and knee osteoarthritis

From: Does hallux valgus impair physical function?

   No HV HV Standard partial regression coefficient p Value No HV-mild HV Moderate-severe HV Standard partial regression coefficient p Value No HV or painless HV Painful HV Standard partial regression coefficient p Value
  (n = 402) (n = 160) (n = 495) (n = 67) (n = 529) (n = 33)
Grip strength, kg Crude 28.6 ± 8.5 25.1 ± 6.2    28.2 ± 8.2 23.1 ± 6.0    27.9 ± 8.1 23.2 ± 7.0   
  Adjusted 27.6 ± 5.2 27.7 ± 5.3 0.007 0.813 27.7 ± 5.1 26.4 ± 5.2 −0.055 *0.043 27.7 ± 5.1 26.5 ± 5.1 −0.035 0.206
Single-leg stance time, s Crude 31.2 ± 22.8 24.8 ± 22.1    30.0 ± 22.7 24.3 ± 22.7    29.8 ± 22.7 22.5 ± 22.9   
  Adjusted 30.1 ± 18.4 27.6 ± 18.7 −0.049 0.162 29.6 ± 18.2 27.5 ± 18.6 − 0.03 0.391 29.5 ± 18.2 26.5 ± 18.3 −0.032 0.351
Stand up from a chair time, s Crude 10.1 ± 3.6 11.1 ± 4.5    10.2 ± 3.6 11.5 ± 5.5    10.3 ± 3.8 11.3 ± 4.3   
  Adjusted 10.3 ± 3.5 10.7 ± 3.5 0.048 0.222 10.3 ± 3.4 11.1 ± 3.5 0.069 0.072 10.3 ± 3.4 11.8 ± 3.4 0.059 0.118
Usual gait speed, m/s Crude 1.01 ± 0.21 1.01 ± 0.24    1.02 ± 0.21 1.00 ± 0.26    1.02 ± 0.22 0.92 ± 0.25   
  Adjusted 1.01 ± 0.20 1.03 ± 0.21 0.044 0.279 1.01 ± 0.20 1.02 ± 0.20 0.003 0.931 1.02 ± 0.20 0.94 ± 0.20 −0.091 *0.021
Maximum gait speed, m/s Crude 1.33 ± 0.27 1.28 ± 0.31    1.33 ± 0.27 1.22 ± 0.33    1.33 ± 0.27 1.17 ± 0.37   
  Adjusted 1.32 ± 0.24 1.32 ± 0.24 0.007 0.849 1.33 ± 0.24 1.27 ± 0.24 −0.072 *0.048 1.33 ± 0.23 1.23 ± 0.24 −0.084 *0.018
  1. HV hallux valgus, M male, F female, s second, m/s meters per second
  2. *p < 0.05