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Table 2 Comparison of physical functions between the no HV group and the HV group, between the no HV-mild HV group and the moderate-severe HV group, and between the no HV or painless HV group and the painful HV group after adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index

From: Does hallux valgus impair physical function?

   No HV HV Standard partial regression coefficient p Value No HV-mild HV Moderate-severe HV Standard partial regression coefficient p Value No HV or painless HV Painful HV Standard partial regression coefficient p Value
  (n = 402) (n = 160) (n = 495) (n = 67) (n = 529) (n = 33)
Grip strength, kg Crude 28.6 ± 8.5 25.1 ± 6.2    28.2 ± 8.2 23.1 ± 6.0    27.9 ± 8.1 23.2 ± 7.0   
  Adjusted 27.6 ± 5.2 27.6 ± 5.2 0.007 0.910 27.8 ± 5.1 26.3 ± 5.2 −0.140 *0.034 27.7 ± 5.1 26.4 ± 5.1 −0.088 0.189
Single-leg stance time, s Crude 31.2 ± 22.8 24.8 ± 22.1    30.0 ± 22.7 24.3 ± 22.7    29.8 ± 22.7 22.5 ± 22.9   
  Adjusted 30.1 ± 18.3 27.4 ± 18.6 −0.079 0.125 29.6 ± 18.2 27.3 ± 18.5 − 0.051 0.332 29.5 ± 18.2 26.3 ± 18.3 − 0.052 0.323
Stand up from a chair time, s Crude 10.1 ± 3.6 11.1 ± 4.5    10.2 ± 3.6 11.5 ± 5.5    10.3 ± 3.8 11.8 ± 4.3   
  Adjusted 10.3 ± 3.4 10.7 ± 3.5 0.063 0.175 10.3 ± 3.4 11.2 ± 3.5 0.089 0.056 10.3 ± 3.4 11.3 ± 3.4 0.077 0.106
Usual gait speed, m/s Crude 1.01 ± 0.21 1.01 ± 0.24    1.02 ± 0.21 1.00 ± 0.26    1.02 ± 0.22 0.92 ± 0.25   
  Adjusted 1.01 ± 0.20 1.03 ± 0.20 0.039 0.376 1.02 ± 0.20 1.01 ± 0.20 −0.003 0.949 1.02 ± 0.21 0.93 ± 0.20 − 0.108 *0.017
Maximum gait speed, m/s Crude 1.33 ± 0.27 1.28 ± 0.31    1.33 ± 0.27 1.22 ± 0.33    1.33 ± 0.27 1.17 ± 0.37   
  Adjusted 1.32 ± 0.24 1.32 ± 0.24 0.002 0.968 1.33 ± 0.24 1.26 ± 0.24 −0.103 *0.037 1.33 ± 0.23 1.22 ± 0.24 −0.120 *0.016
  1. HV hallux valgus, M male, F female, s second, m/s meters per second
  2. *p < 0.05