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Table 4 Equations Estimating %BF from BMI, Age, and Gender

From: Association between stress fracture incidence and predicted body fat in United States Army Basic Combat Training recruits

Study Criterion Method for BF Determination Participants Equation for % Body Fat Prediction r2 SEE
Deurenberg et al. [28] Underwater weighting 749 healthy M & W, 16–83 yr. in Netherlands −5.4 + 1.20 BMI + 0.23 age - 10.8 sex 0.79 4.1
Gallagher et al. [29] 4 compartment models using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, doubly-labled water, & underwater weighting 706 M & W, 20–94 yr., BMI < 35 kg/m2, residing near NY city −10.02 + 1.46 BMI + 0.12 age - 11.61 sex 0.67 5.7
Gallagher et al. [30] 4 compartment models using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, doubly-labled water, & underwater weighting 1626 M & W, 20–97 yr., convenience sample from UK, US, and Japan 64.5–848 (1/BMI) + 0.079 age-16.4 sex + 0.05 sex age + 39.0 sex (1/BMI) 0.74 5.0
Jackson et al. [31, 49, 50] Underwater weighting 679 M & W, 18–61 yr., from 3 US locations −13.9 + 1.61 BMI + 0.13 age - 12.1 sex 0.75 5.5
Pasco et al. 2012 [32] Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry 1766 M & W, 20–74 yr., in Australia 37.8 + 1.62 (BMI-mean) -16.7 sex - 0.06 (BMI-mean)2 + 0.02 age - 0.17 sex (BMI-mean) + 0.03 gender (BMI-mean) + 0.04 sex age 0.83 4.1
Gomez-Ambrosi et al. 2012 [33] Air displacement plethysmography 6123 Caucasians, 18–80 yr. in Spain −44.988 + (0.503 age) + (10.689 sex) + (3.172 BMI) – (0.026 BMI2) + (0.181 BMI sex) – (0.02 BMI age) – (0.005 BMI2 sex) + (0.00021 BMI2 age) 0.79 4.7
Present Study Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry 349 healthy men and women 18–35 yr., in US Army BCT −7.53 + 1.43 BMI + 0.13 age - 14.73 sex 0.77 4.2
  1. In all models, BMI is in kg/m2, age in years, and in all models except Gomez Ambrosi, sex is 0 = women, 1 = men. For Gomez Ambrosi, sex is 0 = men, 1 = female
  2. Abbreviations: r2 explained variance (%), SEE standard error of the estimate (% body fat), US United States, UK United Kingdom, NY New York, BCT Basic Combat Training, M men, W women