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Table 1 Baseline participants’ characteristics

From: Prognostic factors of a favorable outcome following a supervised exercise program for soldiers with sub-acute and chronic low back pain

Variables All Subjects (N = 85) Favorable outcome (N = 40) Unfavorable outcome (N = 45)
Age (years) 37.22 ± 9.35 36.51 ± 10.40 37.83 ± 8.38
Gender (% men) 88.2 85.0 91.1
Weight (kg) 86.27 ± 18.57 83.82 ± 16.78 88.46 ± 19.96
Height (m) 1.74 ± 0.08 1.74 ± 0.08 1.74 ± 0.07
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.93 ± 5.93 27.51 ± 4.65 28.29 ± 6.90
Number of months in the army 158.30 ± 111.58 147.25 ± 112.34 168.34 ± 111.21
History of LBP (%) 74.1 70.0 77.8
Number of months since last onset of LBP 16.28 ± 32.19 12.12 ± 20.34 19.69 ± 39.38
Number of treatments received before first evaluation* 4.94 ± 5.81 3.14 ± 3.81 6.85 ± 6.92
Referred pain in lower limb (%) 31.8 22.5 40.0
Work restriction (%)* 51.8 40.0 62.2
Work restriction of 6 months or more (%)* 30.6 15.0 44.4
Numbness and tingling sensation (%) 23.5 22.2 26.7
Prone instability test (%) 66.2 71.4 61.1
Use of antidepressants (%)* 15.3 5.0 24.4
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (%) 29.4 32.5 26.7
Pain in sitting position (VAS 0–100) 77.6 77.5 77.8
Pain in lying position* (VAS 0–100) 37.5 25.0 48.9
Pain in standing position (VAS 0–100) 84.7 75.0 93.3
Pain during walking (VAS 0–100) 40.0 32.5 46.7
Pain when coughing or sneezing (VAS 0–100) 28.2 25.0 31.1
Tingling or numbness in the lower limbs (VAS 0–100) 24.7 20.0 26.7
  1. *Significant difference between the favorable outcome group and unfavorable outcome group (p < 0.10; univariate analyses). Continuous variables are shown as Mean ± 1 Standard Deviation, while categorical variables are shown as %