Skip to main content

Table 2 Mixed model analyses of completers (a) and for completers and treatment non-completers taken together (intention to treat; b) for the four outcomes: ISI, Pain-7d, HADS-anxiety and HADS-depression

From: Is sleep disturbance in patients with chronic pain affected by physical exercise or ACT-based stress management? – A randomized controlled study

  Exercise Within grp
p-value
ACT-bsm Within grp
p-value
CON Within grp
p-value
Time vs T0
p-value
a) Completers
 ISI
  Time x group (p-value) .037        
   T0 13.48 ± 6.52 ref 14.23 ± 6.00 ref 12.76 ± 7.24 ref
   T1 12.14 ± 6.55 .020 13.25 ± 6.30 .071 13.15 ± 7.46 .234
   T2 11.64 ± 7.15 .002 13.24 ± 6.38 .215 11.53 ± 7.29 .122
   T3 11.19 ± 6.27 .001 12.22 ± 6.38 .009 12.59 ± 7.13 .851
 Pain-7d
  Time x group (p-value) .003        
   T0 5.91 ± 1.77 ref 5.78 ± 1.97 ref 5.73 ± 2.15 ref
   T1 4.58 ± 2.14 .001 5.45 ± 1.99 .142 5.67 ± 2.15 .930
   T2 5.14 ± 2.36 .015 5.59 ± 2.24 .315 5.02 ± 2.02 .010
   T3 5.09 ± 2.17 .011 5.47 ± 1.91 .169 5.04 ± 2.22 .025
 HADS-A
  Overall effect of time (p-value) .003   .017   .276   
  Overall effect of group (p-value) .211   .916   ref   
  Time x group (p-value) .112        
   T0 8.56 ± 4.42 ref 7.52 ± 4.14 ref 7.60 ± 4.10 ref ref
   T1 7.08 ± 4.79 6.77 ± 3.77 7.42 ± 4.54 <.001
   T2 7.17 ± 4.26 6.59 ± 3.76 5.85 ± 4.45 <.001
   T3 7.30 ± 4.46 6.56 ± 3.90 7.27 ± 3.80 .001
 HADS-D
  Overall effect of time (p-value) .137   .011   .487   
  Overall effect of group (p-value) .719   .260   ref   
  Time x group (p-value) .197        
   T0 6.40 ± 3.65 ref 6.78 ± 3.37 ref 5.48 ± 3.94 ref ref
   T1 5.41 ± 3.86 6.07 ± 3.80 5.42 ± 3.82 .002
   T2 5.52 ± 3.27 6.04 ± 3.61 4.87 ± 3.75 .005
   T3 5.67 ± 3.90 5.56 ± 3.75 5.49 ± 3.75 .037
b) Completers + treatment non-completers
 ISI
  Time x group (p-value) .015        
   T0 13.48 ± 6.49 ref 13.73 ± 6.16 ref 13.14 ± 7.31 ref
   T1 11.63 ± 6.50 .001 13.39 ± 6.47 .260 13.39 ± 7.45 .216
   T2 11.83 ± 7.29 .003 12.98 ± 6.16 .594 11.73 ± 7.27 .055
   T3 11.17 ± 6.22 .002 12.32 ± 6.19 .057 12.49 ± 7.01 .955
 Pain-7d
  Time x group (p-value) .009        
   T0 5.88 ± 1.78 ref 5.84 ± 1.96 ref 5.86 ± 2.11 ref
   T1 4.64 ± 2.29 .000 5.59 ± 1.99 .105 5.52 ± 2.13 .355
   T2 5.14 ± 2.28 .020 5.57 ± 2.31 .228 4.92 ± 2.05 .002
   T3 4.98 ± 2.30 .004 5.39 ± 2.03 .057 4.94 ± 2.25 .003
 HADS-A
  Overall effect of time (p-value) .024   .021   .089   
  Overall effect of group (p-value) .784   .337   ref   
  Time x group (p-value) .103        
   T0 8.22 ± 4.58 ref 7.41 ± 4.09 ref 8.01 ± 4.66 ref ref
   T1 6.84 ± 4.79 .000 7.02 ± 3.91 .218 7.85 ± 4.82 .582 .001
   T2 7.09 ± 4.40 .002 6.64 ± 3.71 .033 6.15 ± 3.88 .000 <.001
   T3 7.21 ± 4.73 .021 6.63 ± 4.13 .036 7.17 ± 3.78 .475 .003
 HADS-D
  Overall effect of time (p-value) .303   .065   .931   
  Overall effect of group (p-value) .355   .434   ref   
  Time x group (p-value) .494        
   T0 6.32 ± 3.75 ref 6.20 ± 3.45 ref 5.75 ± 4.21 ref ref
   T1 5.37 ± 3.90 .006 5.94 ± 3.75 .025 5.57 ± 3.69 .721 .002
   T2 5.58 ± 3.44 .058 5.81 ± 3.61 .198 5.08 ± 3.72 .396 .018
   T3 5.73 ± 3.99 .297 5.53 ± 3.75 .042 5.42 ± 3.73 .739 .096
  1. Exercise exercise intervention, ACT-bsm Stress Management Intervention, CON controls, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, Pain-7d pain intensity recent 7 days according to 11-graded numeric rating scale, HADS-A Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale Anxiety, HADS-D Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale depression, T0 baseline, T1 immediately after the intervention, T2 6-month follow-up, T3 12-month follow-up