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Table 3 Scores and distribution of the Japanese COMI and reference questionnaires

From: Development of the Japanese Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI): cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation

Scale/Domain mean (SD) Median Range Min–Max Floor effect (worst status) (%) Ceiling effect (best status) (%)
COMIa      
 Back Pain 3.7 (2.6) 3.0 0–10 1.5 12.4
 Leg Pain 2.6 (2.7) 2.0 0–10 1.1 33.3
 Pain 4.0 (2.7) 4.0 0–10 1.8 10.7
 Back Function 2.5 (2.5) 2.5 0–10 2.6 36.5
 Symptom-specific well-being 6.6 (3.1) 7.5 0–10 28.8 8.1
 QOL 5.0 (2.4) 5.0 0–10 6.1 5.9
 Social Disability 1.1 (2.3) 0.0 0–10 3.3 72.5
 Work Disability 0.8 (2.0) 0.0 0–10 2.6 82.9
 Summary Score 3.7 (1.8) 3.6 0–8.8 0.0 2.9
EQ-5D      
 Summary Score 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 −0.111–1.000 0.3 34.7
 VAS 66.8 (22.8) 70.0 0–100 0.1 2.5
RDQa 4.0 (5.5) 2.0 0–24 0.8 35.5
SF-8      
 PCS 45.1 (8.7) 46.1 11.97–63.53 0.0 0.0
 MCS 46.0 (8.6) 47.5 11.53–65.09 0.0 0.0
STarTa 2.7 (2.4) 2.0 0–9 2.7 21.9
 Total      
 Sub score (psychological) 1.5 (1.5) 1.0 0–5 5.5 35.5
  1. COMI: Core Outcome Measures Index; SD: standard deviation; QOL: quality of life; EQ-5D: the EuroQol 5 Dimension; VAS: visual analogue scale; RDQ: Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; SF-8: Short Form 8™ Health Survey; PCS: physical component summary; MCS: mental component summary; STarT: the Keele STarT Back Screening Tool
  2. aHigher score indicates worse status; lower score indicates better status