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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants (n = 1052)

From: Development of the Japanese Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI): cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation

Characteristics n (%)
Sex  
 Male 668 (63.5)
Age, year (mean ± SD) 48.3 ± 12.6
LBP before this episode  
 Yes 869 (82.7)
Duration of current episode  
 ≥3–< 6 months 62 (5.9)
 ≥6–< 12 months 79 (7.5)
 ≥12–< 18 months 76 (7.2)
 ≥18 months 835 (79.4)
Severity of LBP  
 Grade Ia 351 (33.4)
 Grade IIb 353 (33.6)
 Grade IIIc 348 (33.1)
Normal work  
 Regular employee 405 (38.5)
 Contract employee 171 (16.3)
 Temporary employee 27 (2.6)
 Business owner 76 (7.2)
 Helping family business 8 (0.8)
 Home worker 22 (2.1)
 Student 3 (0.3)
 Homemaker 136 (12.9)
 Unemployed 178 (16.9)
 Other 26 (2.5)
Length of current sick leave  
 Not on sick leave 640 (60.8)
 < 1 month 289 (27.5)
 ≥1–< 3 months 42 (4.0)
 ≥3–< 6 months 20 (1.9)
 ≥6–< 12 months 12 (1.1)
 ≥12–< 18 months 5 (0.5)
 ≥18 months 44 (4.2)
Educational level  
 Junior High school 31 (2.9)
 Secondary education 545 (51.8)
 University education 427 (40.6)
 Higher degree 46 (4.4)
 Others 3 (0.3)
Type of work  
 Sedentary 477 (45.3)
 Physical 198 (18.8)
 Others 377 (35.8)
Current treatment for LBP  
 Yes 261 (24.8)
Radiation of current pain  
 To the buttock or thigh but not to the knee 182 (17.3)
 To the buttock, thigh, shin and feet 156 (14.8)
 No 714 (67.9)
Non-specific/Specific LBP  
 Non-specific 714 (67.9)
 Disc herniation, spinal stenosis or both 121 (11.5)
 Other cause of radiation of pain 217 (20.6)
Pain location (COMI)  
 Low back pain and back pain 499 (47.4)
 Leg/buttock pain 133 (12.6)
 Sensory disturbances (back, leg or buttocks) 163 (15.5)
 Other 257 (24.4)
  1. Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise specified
  2. There were no missing data since the survey completion required answers to all questions
  3. aNo interference with everyday activities
  4. bInterference with everyday activities but not with social activities including work, housework, and school
  5. cInterference with social activities including work, housework, and school
  6. SD: standard deviation; LBP: low back pain; COMI: core outcome measure index