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Fig. 1 | BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

Fig. 1

From: Development of the Japanese Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI): cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation

Fig. 1

Participant recruitment flow for the Japanese COMI validation study. a Of the whole registrants to the Internet research company, 630,000 in the eligible age range (20–69 years) were randomly invited to participate in the screening survey. b Screening respondents were considered eligible for the survey if they had chronic LBP (LBP lasting for ≥3 months) with severity graded as follows: I, no interference with everyday activities; II, interference with everyday activities but no absence from social activities including work, housework, and school; or III, interference with social activities, leading to absence from social activities [18]; but without LBP caused by cancer, inflammation, aneurysm, urolithiasis, or fracture. c Eligible participants were randomly selected based on computer-generated randomization sequences, stratified by sex and LBP severity, in order to obtain an equal number of males and females in each severity group. A total of 1787 eligible participants who were registered at the time of our survey were invited to take part in the study; 13 patients who withdrew registration to the panel after the screening were not invited

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