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Table 4 Details of the exercise progression

From: Effects of local treatment with and without sensorimotor and balance exercise in individuals with neck pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Exercise Level Details Targeted repetitions
Cervical flexors 1 Re-education of CCF movement pattern
Supine, knees bent
- Gentle and controlled nodding action facilitated with eye movement 10 reps
Holding capacity
Supine, knees bent
- Repeated and sustained CCF progressing from 22 to 30 mmHg 10 s holds × 10 reps
2 Interaction between the deep/superficial cervical flexors
Sitting
- Controlled head movement through range of extension and return to neutral 10 reps
Co-contraction of the deep cervical flexors/extensors
Sitting
- Isometric cervical rotation facilitated with eye movement (left/right sides) 5 s holds × 5 reps
3 Strength/endurance of the cervical flexors
Sitting
- Isometric CCF in a range of cervical extension 10 s holds × 10 reps
- Lifting the head off the wall (with the chair up to 30 cm away from the wall) 10 s holds ×  10 reps
Supine
- Lifting the head off a pillow (2, 1 then 0 pillows as per participant’s capacity) 10 s holds × 10 reps
Cervical extensors 1 Re-education of extension movement pattern
Prone on elbows/four-point kneeling positions
- Craniocervical extension 3 sets of 5 reps
- Craniocervical rotation (< 40°) 3 sets of 5 reps
- Cervical extension while keeping the craniocervical region in a neutral position 3 sets of 5 reps
2 Co-contraction of the deep cervical flexors/extensors
Sitting
- Isometric cervical rotation facilitated with eye movement (left/right sides) 5 s holds × 5reps
3 Strength/endurance of the cervical extensors
Prone on elbows/four-point kneeling positions
- Isometric hold in range of cervical extension 10 s holds × 10 reps
- Addition of progressive load (light weights attached to head) as per patient’s capacity  
Axioacapular control 1 Re-education of scapular movement control
Side lying with arm elevated 140°/sitting
- Passive repositioning of the scapular 10 reps
- Active repositioning of the scapular 10 reps
Holding capacity
Side lying with arm elevated 140°/sitting
- Active repositioning the scapular posture and isometric hold 10 s holds × 10 reps
2 Axioscapular muscle control
Sitting
- Arm movement without load (external rotation/abduction/flexion < 30°) 10 reps
- Arm movement without load throughout range 10 reps
Prone on elbows/four-point kneeling position
- Thoracic lift (serratus anterior) and isometric hold 5 s holds × 5 reps
3 Strength/endurance of axioscapular muscles
Sitting
- Arm movement with load (external rotation/abduction/flexion < 30°) 10 reps
- Arm movement with load throughout the range 10 reps
Prone
- Lift the shoulder off the bed and hold without arm load 10 s holds × 10 reps
- Lift the shoulder off the bed and hold with arm load 10 s holds ×  10 reps
Postural correction 1 Correction of spinal posture
Sitting
- Active upright sitting initiated with lumbo-pelvic movement 10 s holds × 10 reps
2 Correction of spinal posture and scapular orientation
Sitting
- Actively positioning the scapular in a neutral posture while maintaining spinal posture 10 s holds ×  10 reps
3 Spinal and scapular correction plus occipital lift
Sitting
- Actively lengthen the back of the neck while maintaining spinal and scapular posture 10 s holds ×  10 reps
Cervical joint position sense 1 Relocation with laser feedback
Sitting
- Head relocating to neutral position with eyes opened (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head relocating to predetermined position in range with eyes opened (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
2 Relocation with laser feedback
Sitting
- Head relocating to neutral position with eyes opened (diagonal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head relocating to predetermined position in range with eyes opened (diagonal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head relocating to specific targets with eyes opened (all directions) 5 reps × 3 sets
3 Relocation with laser feedback
Sitting
- Head relocating to neutral position with eyes closed (all directions) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head relocating to predetermined position in range with eyes closed (all directions) 5 reps × 3 sets
Cervical movement sense 1 Movement sense training with laser feedback
Sitting
- Tracing a line (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
2 Movement sense training with laser feedback
Sitting position
- Tracing an intricate pattern at a slow speed (a figure of eight/zig-zag/alphabet) 5 reps × 3 sets
3 Movement sense training with laser feedback
Sitting position
- Tracing an intricate pattern at a fast speed (a figure of eight/zig-zag/alphabet) 5 reps × 3 sets
Oculomotor control 1 Eye follow, gaze stability and eye-head coordination
Sitting
- Eyes following a target with slow speed while keeping the head still (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head moving while fixing eyes on a single spot (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Eyes and head moving together to the same direction (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
2 Eye follow, gaze stability and eye-head coordination
Sitting
- Eyes following a target with fast speed while keeping the head still (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head moving while fixing eyes on complex targets (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Moving the eyes first then the head to the same direction 5 reps × 3 sets
3 Eye follow, gaze stability and eye-head coordination
Sitting
- Eyes following a target with neck in 45° torsion (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Head moving while fixing eyes on a word target with complex backgrounds (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
- Eyes and head moving to the opposite direction (vertical/horizontal) 5 reps × 3 sets
Balance control 1 Static balance
Standing
- Narrow stance (firm/soft surfaces with eyes open/closed) 30 s holds × 10 reps
- Tandem stance (firm/soft surfaces with eyes open/closed) 30 s holds × 10 reps
2 Dynamic balance and gait
Standing
- Throwing/catching a ball while tandem stance (firm/soft surfaces) 30 s holds ×  10 reps
Walking
- Normal walking with fast speed (forward/backward, side way) 10 reps
- Tandem walking (forward/backward) 10 reps
3 Dynamic balance and gait with head movement
Standing
- Throwing/catching a ball while single leg standing (firm/soft surfaces) 30 s holds × 10 reps
Walking  
- Normal walking (forward/backward, side way) with head movement (left/right, up/down) 10 reps
- Tandem walking (forward/backward) with head movement (left/right, up/down) 10 reps