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Table 2 Prevalence of the investigated musculoskeletal diseases and consultations for chronic pain according to sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. Adults aged 18+ years (N = 1,501,267)

From: Epidemiology of arthritis, chronic back pain, gout, osteoporosis, spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis among 1.5 million patients in Australian general practice: NPS MedicineWise MedicineInsight dataset

  % of all data Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disease (2010–2016)a Current consultation for chronic pain
(2013–2016)b
% of patients with a MSK that consulted for chronic pain (2013–2016)b
%
%c PR (95%CI)c %c PR (95%CI)c
State    P < 0.001   P = 0.006  
 New South Wales (NSW) 28.2 17.6 Ref 22.7 Ref 57.5
 Victoria (VIC) 25.5 16.5 0.94 (0.85–1.04) 22.2 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 58.1
 Queensland (QLD) 18.7 16.9 0.96 (0.88;1.06) 19.8 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 53.4
 Western Australia (WA) 13.3 14.7 0.83 (0.72–0.96) 19.1 0.84 (0.72–0.99) 55.9
 Tasmania (TAS) 8.0 19.4 1.10 (1.01–1.21) 21.8 0.96 (0.83–1.12) 52.8
 South Australia (SA) 3.4 17.3 0.98 (0.87;1.11) 22.3 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 54.9
 Australia Capital Territory (ACT) 1.6 18.8 1.07 (0.73;1.58) 26.1 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 63.8
 North Territory (NT) 1.3 10.2 0.58 (0.39;0.88) 8.8 0.39 (0.22–0.67) 38.0
Rurality    P = 0.05   P = 0.07  
 Major cities 63.0 16.4 Ref 21.4 Ref 57.2
 Inner regional 24.2 18.1 1.11 (1.02–1.20) 22.4 1.05 (0.93–1.17) 55.5
 Outer regional 11.2 16.9 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 19.4 0.91 (0.80–1.02) 52.4
 Remote Australia 1.6 14.6 0.89 (0.71–1.12) 16.6 0.78 (0.61–1.00) 49.0
Socioeconomic position (SEIFA-IRSAD quintiles)    P < 0.001   P < 0.001  
 1 (Lowest) 17.3 18.9 Ref 23.8 Ref 57.1
 2 15.7 19.1 1.01 (0.93–1.08) 23.5 0.99 (0.90–1.08) 57.2
 3 20.5 16.5 0.87 (0.80–0.94) 20.2 0.85 (0.77–0.93) 54.2
 4 20.1 16.5 0.87 (0.81–0.94) 21.2 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 56.3
 5 (Highest) 26.4 14.6 0.77 (0.71–0.84) 19.6 0.83 (0.74–0.93) 56.0
Pension    P < 0.001   P < 0.001  
 None 22.9 13.3 Ref 17.8 Ref 51.5
 Pensioner or health care card 32.6 21.7 1.64 (1.52–1.76) 26.0 1.46 (1.32–1.63) 59.0
 Department of Veterans Affair 1.3 24.1 1.82 (1.68–1.98) 29.6 1.66 (1.47–1.88) 60.8
 Ignored 43.2 14.3 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 20.3 1.14 (1.00–1.31) 55.1
Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander    P < 0.001   P < 0.001  
 No 69.7 17.6 Ref 22.2 Ref 56.9
 Yes 1.8 22.9 1.30 (1.22–1.39) 25.8 1.16 (1.08–1.24) 58.2
 Ignored 28.6 14.7 0.83 (0.79–0.88) 19.0 0.85 (0.80–0.91) 53.8
Smoking status    P < 0.001   P < 0.001  
 Non-smoker 50.3 16.8 Ref 21.3 Ref 54.8
 Ex-smoker 20.1 19.8 1.17 (1.15–1.19) 24.4 1.14 (1.12–1.17) 57.2
 Current smoker 14.5 20.5 1.22 (1.19–1.25) 24.8 1.17 (1.12–1.21) 59.4
 Ignored 15.1 10.0 0.65 (0.61–0.70) 15.7 0.69 (0.64–0.75) 54.4
  1. a Considering the whole period since the first register available in the MedicineInsight dataset (2000–2016), and including those positives for arthritis, chronic back pain, gout, osteoporosis, spondyloarthropathies and/or rheumatoid arthritis
  2. b Consultation between 10/2013 and 06/2016
  3. c Prevalence, prevalence ratios (PR) and p-values estimated based on Poisson Regression models, adjusted for sex and age. P-values of heterogeneity indicating differences across categories of each independent variable