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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants with knee pain

From: Disability due to knee pain and somatising tendency in Japanese adults

  All (n = 14,695) Knee pain without difficulty in ADL (n = 12,161) Knee pain with difficultly but without sick leave (n = 1954) Knee pain with sick leave (n = 580) p-value*
Age (%)      < 0.001
 20–29 1942 (13.2) 1569 (12.9) 271 (13.9) 102 (17.6)  
 30–39 2903 (19.8) 2345 (19.3) 411 (21.0) 147 (25.3)  
 40–49 3462 (23.6) 2875 (23.6) 441 (22.6) 146 (25.2)  
 50–59 4322 (29.4) 3599 (29.6) 588 (30.1) 135 (23.3)  
 60–64 2066 (14.1) 1773 (14.6) 243 (12.4) 50 (8.6)  
Sex (%)      0.0003
 Men 7421 (50.5) 6082 (50.0) 1000 (51.2) 339 (58.5)  
 Women 7274 (49.5) 6079 (50.0) 954 (48.8) 241 (41.6)  
BMI (%)      0.0003
 < 25 11,078 (75.4) 9228 (75.9) 1431 (73.2) 419 (72.2)  
 25–29 2811 (19.1) 2311 (19.0) 381 (19.5) 119 (20.5)  
 ≥ 30 806 (5.5) 622 (5.1) 142 (7.3) 42 (7.2)  
Marital status (%)      < 0.001
 Not married 6249 (42.5) 5069 (41.7) 884 (45.2) 296 (51)  
 Married 8446 (57.5) 7092 (58.3) 1070 (54.8) 284 (49)  
Education (%)      0.003
 No college 7820 (53.2) 6402 (52.6) 1077 (55.1) 341 (58.8)  
 Some college 6875 (46.8) 5759 (47.4) 877 (44.9) 239 (41.2)  
Exercise (%)      0.016
 No regular exercise 11,585 (78.8) 9577 (78.8) 1524 (78) 484 (83.5)  
 Regular exercise 3110 (21.2) 2584 (21.3) 430 (22) 96 (16.6)  
PHQ-2 (%)a      < 0.001
 0 9415 (64.1) 8028 (66.0) 1060 (54.3) 327 (56.4)  
 1 2546 (17.3) 2054 (16.9) 399 (20.4) 93 (16.0)  
 2 2734 (18.6) 2079 (17.1) 495 (25.3) 160 (27.6)  
Chronic knee pain (%)      < 0.001
 No 4906 (33.4) 4096 (33.7) 509 (26.1) 301 (51.9)  
 Yes 9789 (66.6) 8065 (66.3) 1445 (74.0) 279 (48.1)  
Osteoarthritis (%) 607 (4.1) 328 (2.7) 209 (10.7) 70 (12.1) < 0.001
Rheumatoid arthritis (%) 229 (1.6) 138 (1.1) 67 (3.4) 24 (4.1) < 0.001
Fibromyalgia (%) 81 (0.6) 38 (0.3) 27 (1.4) 16 (2.8) < 0.001
SSS-8 (%)      < 0.001
 No to minimal 5262 (35.8) 4679 (38.5) 418 (21.4) 165 (28.5)  
 Low 4175 (28.4) 3542 (29.1) 526 (26.9) 107 (18.5)  
 Medium 2510 (17.1) 2069 (17.0) 363 (18.6) 78 (13.5)  
 High 1434 (9.8) 1079 (8.9) 284 (14.5) 71 (12.2)  
 Very high 1314 (8.9) 792 (6.5) 363 (18.6) 159 (27.4)  
  1. ADL activities of daily living, BMI body mass index, PHQ-2 Patient Health Questionnaire-2, SSS-8 Somatic Symptom Scale-8
  2. *p-value from the chi-square test
  3. aPHQ-2 items are commonly scored 0 to 3, but the items in the Japanese PHQ-2 were scored yes/no (0/1)