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Table 2 Results from the laboratory studies

From: Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending

  Data Differences1) Relative reliability Relative validity Absolute reliability
Reliability study Validity study Reliability Validity
  Qinematic™
TEST 1
Median (IQR)
Qinematic™
TEST 2
Median (IQR)
BTS-Elite
Median (IQR)
Qinematic™
Median (IQR)
Qinematic™
T1 vs. T2
p-value1
Qinematic™ vs. BTS-Elite
p-value1
Qinematic™
T1 vs. T2
ICC2) (95%CI)
Qinematic™ vs. BTS-Elite
r (p-value)3)
Qinematic™ vs BTS-Elite
ICC2) (95%CI)
Qinematic™
SEM4)
Qinematic™
MCD5)
Posture (Reliability study: n = 37; Validity study: n = 26)
 P-HL 1.34 (2.42) 2.14 (1.71) −0.53 (2.45) 0.79 (2.85) 0.230 0.000 0.329 (0.01–0.59) 0.487(0.014) 0.418 (0.04–0.72) 1.388 3.846
 P-HF 2.28 (6.52) 2.05 (5.46) 7.46 (5.89) 2.31 (5.63) 0.934 0.000 0.326 (0.01–0.59) 0.723 (0.000) 0.741 (0.49–0.64) 3.217 8.918
 P-PP 0.45 (1.13) 0.49 (0.79) −0.08 (1.52) 0.45 (0.90) 0.028 0.032 0.308 (−0.01–0.57) 0.270 (0.181) 0.342(0.04–0.64) 0.619 1.717
 P-NA −2.85 (6.26) −2.76 (4.43) 0.054 0.723 (0.53–0.85) 1.876 5.200
 P-HL 0.33 (0.32) 0.32 (0.24) 0.354 0.655 (0.42–0.81) 0.122 0.339
 P-WB 48.52 (7.00) 46.95 (3.96) 49.16 (9.14) 48.96 (4.51) 0.041 0.259 0.231 (−0.10–0.52) −0.073 (0.716) −0.047 (−0.41–0.33) 3.372 9.349
Balance -Double stance (Reliability study: n = 37; Validity study: n = 26)
 DS-SA 0.10 (0.10) 0.10 (0.10) 0.12 (0.23) 0.10 (0.025) 0.591 0.069 0.125 (−0.20–0.43) 0.345 (0.084) 0.347 (−0.04–0.64) 0.632 1.752
 DS-SVAP 0.70 (0.50) 0.60 (0.30) 3.36 (1.17) 0.55 (0.525) 0.532 0.000 0.013 (−0.20–0.43) −0.273 (0.178) −0.039 (−0.41–0.35) 1.094 3.033
 DS-SVML 0.30 (0.15) 0.30 (0.30) 3.94 (0.88) 0.20 (0.1) 0.481 0.000 0.013 (−0.30–0.33) 0.159 (0.438) 0.038 (−0.35–0.41) 0.810 2.244
Balance - single stance, left (Reliability study: n = 37; Validity study: n = 24)
 SSL-SA 0.50 (0.70) 0.60 (0.40) 1.27 (1.85) 0.35 (0.58) 0.523 0.000 0.177 (−0.18–0.47) 0.301 (0.153) 0.111 (−0.30–0.49) 0.648 1.797
 SSL-SVAP 1.20 (0.85) 1.30 (0.50) 8.89 (3.83) 1.25 (0.95) 0.521 0.000 0.228 (−0.10–0.51) −0.115 (0.465) −0.008 (−0.40–0.39) 0.503 1.393
 SSL-SVML 1.40 (1.30) 1.30 (0.75) 8.89 (4.02) 1.25 (1.08) 0.631 0.000 0.162 (−0.17–0.46) −0.087 (0.702) −0.019 (−0.41–0.38) 0.684 1.896
Balance Single stance, right (Reliability study: n = 37; Validity study: n = 25)
 SSR-SA 0.50 (0.70) 0.50 (0.50) 0.87 (1.09) 0.40 (0.90) 0.432 0.003 −0.101 (−0.41–0.23) 0.260 (0.209) 0.422 (0.04–0.70) 0.907 2.515
 SSR-SVAP 1.20 (0.75) 1.20 (0.55) 8.63 (3.99) 1.30 (0.90) 0.700 0.000 0.048 (−0.28–0.36) 0.316 (0.124) 0.011 (−0.38–0.40) 0.557 1.545
 SSR-SVML 1.40 (1.00) 1.20 (0.75) 8.04 (4.41) 1.40 (1.30) 0.341 0.000 −0.094 (−0.40–0.23) 0.640 (0.001) 0.305 (−0.09–0.62) 1.016 2.816
Side-bending (Reliability study: n = 37; Validity study: n = 29)
 SB-LF 29.93 (3.09) 28.95 (3.21) 29.04 (5.78) 23.16 (5.83) 0.000 0.000 0.898 (0.81–0.95) 0.943 (0.000) 0.931 (0.86–0.95) 0.796 2.207
 SB-RF 29.77 (3.33) 28.92 (3.82) 29.70 (5.13) 23.79 (6.38) 0.018 0.259 0.394 (0.08–0.63) 0.888 (0.000) 0.904 (0.81–0.95) 2.215 6.134
 SB-%BW 85.01 (14.15) 84.18 (10.87) 0.105   0.693 (0.48–0.83)   5.700 15.799
  1. 1) Wilcoxon signed rank test. 2) ICC [1, 3], 3) Spearman correlation coefficient, 4) SEM = 2*SD*ICC, 5) MCD = √2 * SEM
  2. * Numbers in bold: p < 0.05
  3. Median and interquartile range (IQR) together with the reliability and construct validity statistics. Intraclass correlation (ICC [1, 3]) with significant ICC in bold, Spearman correlation (r) (p-value), Standard error of the measurement (SEM) and the Minimal Clinical Difference (MCD). Test-retest reliability statistics were calculated from the data from Test 1 (T1) and Test 2 (T2), and the construct validity statistics were calculated from data from Qinematic™ and BTS-Elite. See Table 1 for description of the variables