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Table 3 Outcome data for craniovertebral angle, neck pain, pain sensitivity, and disability

From: Upper thoracic spine mobilization and mobility exercise versus upper cervical spine mobilization and stabilization exercise in individuals with forward head posture: a randomized clinical trial

Measure/group Baselinea 4 Weeksa 6 Weeksa Mean within-group differences Mean between-group differences
Baseline to 4 weeksb Baseline to 6 weeksb Baseline to 4 weeksb Baseline to 6 weeksb
CVA (sitting)
 Cervical group 45.1 (3.9) 50.6 (4.4) 48.4 (5.7) 5.4 (2.9, 7.9) 3.3 (0.1, 6.4) 0.9 (−2.1, 4.0); p = .536 2.1 (−1.6, 6.0); p = .252
 Thoracic group 43.6 (3.8) 50.0 (3.8) 49.1 (3.0) 6.4 (4.4, 8.4) 5.4 (3.0, 8.0)
CVA (standing)
 Cervical group 50.6 (4.8) 52.0 (5.7) 51.3 (5.2) 1.4 (−1.2, 3.9) 0.6 (−1.9, 3.1) 4.3 (1.2, 7.4); p = .008 3.3 (0.1, 6.4); p = .042
 Thoracic group 48.4 (4.6) 54.1 (4.3) 52.3 (3.3) 5.7 (3.7, 7.7) 3.9 (1.8, 6.0)
NPRS (0–10)
 Cervical group 3.6 (1.4) 2.3 (1.0) 2.3 (1.0) 1.3 (0.8, 1.8) 1.3 (0.7, 1.9) 1.3 (0.6, 2.1); p < .001 1.4 (0.6, 2.3); p = .002
 Thoracic group 4.2 (1.5) 1.6 (0.8) 1.4 (0.7) 2.6 (2.0, 3.2) 2.8 (2.0, 3.4)
PPT (kPa)
 Cervical group 35.9 (8.2) 48.4 (10.5) 46.8 (10.0) 12.5 (9.7, 15.3) 10.8 (8.2, 13.4) 1.9 (−1.4, 5.2); p = .251 −2.6 (−7.0, 1.9); p = .251
 Thoracic group 36.3 (12.7) 50.6 (12.1) 44.5 (11.2) 14.4 (12.5, 16.3) 8.3 (4.4, 12.1)
NDI (0–50)
 Cervical group 7.9 (4.3) 5.4 (3.7) 5.3 (3.9) 2.4 (1.3, 3.6) 2.6 (1.6, 3.7) 3.3 (1.0, 5.6); p = .006 3.4 (1.0, 5.8); p = .008
 Thoracic group 10.4 (5.0) 4.6 (2.2) 4.3 (2.0) 5.8 (3.7, 7.8) 6.1 (3.8, 8.3)
  1. CVA craniovertebral angle, NPRS numerical pain rating scale, PPT pressure pain threshold, NDI neck disability index
  2. aValues are mean (standard deviation)
  3. bValues are mean (95% confidence interval)