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Table 2 Within-group change score and pairwise comparisons of between-group change scores for cervical range of motion

From: Upper thoracic spine mobilization and mobility exercise versus upper cervical spine mobilization and stabilization exercise in individuals with forward head posture: a randomized clinical trial

Measure/group Baselinea 4 Weeksa 6 Weeksa Mean within-group differences Mean between-group differences
Baseline to 4 weeksb Baseline to 6 weeksb Baseline to 4 weeksb Baseline to 6 weeksb
Flexion (°)
 Cervical group 49.3 (10.1) 57.1 (9.3) 53.2 (11.5) 7.8 (2.8, 12.8) 3.9 (−0.8, 8.7) 2.2 (−3.4, 7.7); p = .428 4.7 (−1.0, 10.4); p = .104
 Thoracic group 50.6 (9.5) 60.6 (9.0) 59.3 (7.4) 10.0 (7.1, 13.0) 8.6 (5.0, 12.2)
Extension (°)
 Cervical group 63.3 (8.4) 69.6 (8.1) 64.6 (7.3) 6.3 (2.4, 10.2) 1.3 (−4.0, 6.6) 3.9 (−0.9, 8.8); p = .108 6.2 (1.2, 11.2); p = .016
 Thoracic group 59.7 (9.5) 70.0 (9.0) 67.2 (8.0) 10.3 (5.2, 15.3) 7.5 (3.7, 11.3)
Right lateral flexion (°)
 Cervical group 39.8 (5.7) 45.3 (5.3) 42.9 (4.9) 5.6 (3.0, 8.2) 3.2 (0.0, 6.3) 1.2 (−2.5, 4.9); p = .515 −0.4 (−4.6, 3.8); p = .833
 Thoracic group 37.6 (6.1) 44.4 (2.9) 40.4 (4.4) 6.8 (4.0, 9.6) 2.8 (−0.3, 5.8)
Left lateral flexion (°)
 Cervical group 41.9 (6.0) 45.8 (5.6) 42.4 (4.9) 3.9 (2.0, 5.9) 0.5 (−2.2, 3.2) 3.4 (0.3, 6.5); p = .033 3.5 (−0.1, 7.0); p = .051
 Thoracic group 37.2 (7.5) 44.5 (4.9) 41.2 (5.0) 7.3 (4.7, 9.9) 4.0 (1.6, 6.5)
Right rotation (°)
 Cervical group 67.4 (8.9) 76.3 (5.7) 74.3 (7.0) 8.9 (5.3, 12.6) 6.9 (3.7, 10.0) 4.6 (−0.7, 1.0); p = .088 0.8 (−5.2, 6.7); p = .797
 Thoracic group 63.7 (12.0) 77.3 (6.5) 71.3 (8.6) 13.6 (9.4, 17.8) 7.6 (2.3, 12.9)
Left rotation (°)
 Cervical group 69.1 (8.1) 78.3 (5.3) 75.2 (6.3) 9.1 (5.0, 13.3) 6.1 (1.9, 10.2) 5.9 (−0.1, 12.0); p = .054 3.3 (−3.9, 10.4); p = .054
 Thoracic group 63.6 (13.4) 78.6 (8.3) 72.9 (10.3) 15.1 (10.3, 19.8) 9.3 (3.1, 15.4)
  1. aValues are mean (standard deviation)
  2. bValues are mean (95% confidence interval)