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Table 5 Comparisons of shoulder active and passive range of motion (AROM and PROM), and pain intensity between the FS (frozen shoulder) group (n = 20) and asymptomatic group (n = 20) at baseline; and before and after one-session muscle release treatment in the FS group (n = 18)

From: The immediate effect of muscle release intervention on muscle activity and shoulder kinematics in patients with frozen shoulder: a cross-sectional, exploratory study

  Asymptomatic group Mean (SD) FS group P-valuea P-valueb
Pre-test Mean (SD) Post-test Mean (SD)
AROM
Flexion 171.53 (7.36) 129.25 (12.56) 139.48 (15.11) <.001* <.001*
Abduction 175.98 (10.34) 91.38 (9.89) 98.43 (9.53) <.001* <.001*
External rotation 85.00 (8.15) 30.56 (14.13) 39.68 (13.77) <.001* <.001*
Internal rotation 74.07 (12.18) 39.92 (14.18) 45.78 (15.22) <.001* <.001*
PROM
Flexion 175.60 (6.53) 133.86 (12.28) 143.89 (14.82) <.001* <.001*
Abduction 180.50 (8.74) 96.86 (8.75) 103.43 (9.27) <.001* <.001*
External rotation 89.22 (7.44) 36.61 (13.85) 44.83 (13.67) <.001* <.001*
Internal rotation 79.22 (11.28) 45.18(14.38) 51.31 (15.29) <.001* <.001*
Pain intensity
VAS scale 6.23 (1.84) 4.53 (1.91) <0.001*
  1. SD: standard deviation; VAS: visual analogue scale
  2. aMultivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between the FS and asymptomatic group;
  3. bRepeated measure MANOVA was used to analyze the effect of muscle release treatment on AROM and PROM, and pain intensity in the FS group
  4. *The level of significance was set at p < .05