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Table 3 Comparisons of shoulder muscle activity between the FS (frozen shoulder) group (n = 20) and asymptomatic group (n = 20) at baseline; and before and after one-session muscle release intervention in the FS group (n = 18)

From: The immediate effect of muscle release intervention on muscle activity and shoulder kinematics in patients with frozen shoulder: a cross-sectional, exploratory study

Muscle activity (%) Asymptomatic group Mean (SD) FS group P-valuea P-valueb
Pre-test Mean (SD) Post-test Mean (SD)
Scaption task
Pectoralis major 7.42 (5.87) 6.90 (3.81) 6.42 (3.73) 0.947 0.548
Infraspintus 107.36 (44.45) 81.04 (16.75) 80.05 (18.19) 0.043* 0.911
Teres major 10.54 (4.91) 11.81 (7.86) 10.37 (5.34) 0.968 0.203
Upper trapezius 136.41 (77.08) 103.24 (30.87) 115.92 (43.93) 0.265 0.032*
Lower trapezius 156.11 (63.61) 100.22 (29.06) 135.68 (55.30) 0.001* 0.022*
Hand to neck task
Pectoralis major 6.41 (4.47) 6.44 (3.36) 6.48 (3.88) 0.640 0.786
Infraspintus 108.24 (38.29) 85.81 (25.51) 87.59 (35.15) 0.091 0.730
Teres major 10.63 (4.69) 10.89 (6.53) 9.61 (4.23) 0.565 0.359
Upper trapezius 85.50 (28.55) 70.05 (17.89) 82.19 (30.60) 0.072 0.041*
Lower trapezius 129.50 (48.75) 102.09 (32.93) 136.13 (53.72) 0.052 0.017*
Thumb to waist task
Pectoralis major 6.53 (4.75) 12.84 (9.11) 11.48 (8.26) 0.014* 0.355
Infraspintus 62.93 (30.35) 57.07 (26.57) 57.10 (29.71) 0.602 0.455
Teres major 9.75 (5.93) 13.63 (13.00) 9.64 (5.22) 0.289 0.086
Upper trapezius 22.07 (15.96) 22.75 (18.30) 23.72 (17.29) 0.718 0.941
Lower trapezius 25.62 (22.07) 20.75 (18.49) 23.91 (16.94) 0.314 0.254
  1. SD: standard deviation
  2. aMultivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between the FS and asymptomatic group;
  3. bRepeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the effect of muscle release treatment on muscle activity in the FS group
  4. *The level of significance was set at p < .05