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Table 1 Description of the anatomical landmarks for the goniometric measurements including the position of the stable arm, moving arm, and axis

From: The immediate effect of muscle release intervention on muscle activity and shoulder kinematics in patients with frozen shoulder: a cross-sectional, exploratory study

  Axis Stable arm Moving arm
Flexion Lateral aspect of greater tubercle Axillary line Lateral epicondyle
Abduction Anterior aspect of the acromial process Axillary line Medial epicondyle
External rotation Olecranon process Perpendicular to the ground Ulnar styloid process
Internal rotation Olecranon process Perpendicular to the ground Ulnar styloid process