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Table 3 Post intervention differences in outcomes over 3 months between active and control groups

From: Sex differences in response to targeted kyphosis specific exercise and posture training in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  Within group LS mean difference (pre/post treatment) (95% CI) 1Between group difference (95% CI)
Outcome Control Active aDID 2 p-value
(N = 48) (n = 53)
  Primary Outcome
Cobb angle kyphosis (degrees) 0.3 (−1.1 to 1.7) −1.4 (−2.7 to −0.1) −1.7 (−3.6 to 0.2) 0.09
  Secondary Outcomes
Kyphometer kyphosis (degrees) 1 (−0.5 to 2.4) −3.8 (−5.3 to −2.3) −4.8 (−6.8 to −2.7) <0.0001
Modified PPT (0–36 points) 0.5 (−1.2 to 2.2) −0.9 (−2.6 to 0.7) −1.4 (−3.8 to 0.9) 0.23
4-m (meters/s) −0.03 (−0.09 to 0.03) −0.03 (−0.09 to 0.02) 0 (−0.08 to 0.08) 0.94
Timed Up and Go (seconds) 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5) 0 (−0.4 to 0.3) −0.2 (−0.7 to 0.2) 0.33
Timed Loaded Standing (seconds) −6.2 (−14.2 to 1.7) −3.6 (−11.7 to 4.4) 2.6 (−8.5 to 13.7) 0.64
Six Minute Walk Test (meters) −17.7 (−36.6 to 1.2) 4.4 (−14.6 to 23.3) 22.1 (−4.2 to 48.4) 0.10
SRS 30 Self-esteem (0-5points) 0.1 (0 to 0.2) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3) 0.16
Global health (0–50) 0.6 (−0.5 to 1.7) 0.2 (−0.8 to 1.3) −0.4 (−1.8 to 1.1) 0.64
Physical function (t-score) 1.5 (−0.3 to 3.3) 1.3 (−0.4 to 3) −0.2 (−2.6 to 2.2) 0.86
Spinal extension peak torque (% body weight) 1.8 (−3.2 to 6.8) 8 (2.9 to 13) 6.1 (−0.9 to 13.1) 0.08
Spinal flexion peak torque (% body weight) −0.7 (−2.6 to 1.3) 2 (0.1 to 4) 2.7 (0 to 5.4) 0.05
  1. aDID (Difference of Difference calculated as Within group LS mean difference of Active group - LS mean difference of Control group
  2. 1Calculated by regressing the within person difference in the outcome (pre and post treatment) on treatment group (active vs. delayed group). A negative value indicates a decline while a positive value indicates an increase post treatment
  3. 2 p–value for interaction by treatment (difference of the difference pre/post treatment per group)