Skip to main content

Table 2 Study participant characteristics at baseline between men and women

From: Sex differences in response to targeted kyphosis specific exercise and posture training in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Overall Men Women p-value
(N = 101a) (N = 41a) (N = 60a)
  Mean ± SD
Age (years) 70 ± 5.7 70 ± 5.5 69 ± 6.0 0.30
Cobb angle of kyphosis (degrees) 55.9 ± 12.2 54.6 ± 12.3 56.7 ± 12.1 0.40
Kyphosis derived from kyphometer (degrees) 52.0 ± 7.4 53.5 ± 7.3 51.0 ± 7.4 0.09
BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 ± 4.1 27.2 ± 3.9 25.6 ± 4.1 0.04
Bone mineral density total hip t-score −0.9 ± 1.1 −0.3 ± 1.2 −1.2 ± 0.9 <0.001
Bone mineral density total spine t-score −0.2 ± 2.2 0.9 ± 2.5 −0.9 ± 1.6 <0.001
  N (%)
Race/ethnicity – Caucasian 94 (93) 38 (93) 56 (93) 0.90
Education     0.91
 Some college, vocational or high school 13 (12.9) 6 (14.5) 7 (12)  
 College graduate (BA, BS) 33 (33) 13 (32) 20 (33)  
 Professional or graduate degree 55 (54) 22 (54) 33 (55)  
Co-morbidities     0.84
 0–1 61 (60) 25 (61) 36 (60)  
 2+ 40 (40) 16 (39) 24 (40)  
 Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) (yes) 22 (23) 17 (43) 5 (9) <0.001
Vertebral fracture     0.01
 None 87 (86) 31 (76) 56 (93)  
 Mild 9 (9) 5 (12) 4 (7)  
 Severe 5 (5) 5 (12)   
  1. arestricted to participants with readable baseline and follow-up radiographs of sufficient quality tthat could be evalauted to compare change in the primary Cobb angle outcome; kg/m2 = kilogram/m2; SQ = semi-quantitative Genant scoring