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Table 2 Included studies in alphabetic order according to inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Infection following fractures of the proximal tibia – a systematic review of incidence and outcome

author PMID / DOI study design level of evidence n classification open fractures included y/n open fractures % infection y/n number infection % deep infection y/n number deep infection % DI Revision because of infection Outcome
Babis [29] 21756337 retrospective case series 4 33 Schatzker y 5 15.2 y 1 3.0 y 1 3 y septic pseudarthrosis 1
Barei [30] 16882892 retrospective case series 4 83 AO y 11 13.0 y 5 6.0 y 2 2,4 y union 2
Barei [31] 15507817 retrospective case series 4 83 AO y 11 13.3 y 15 18.1 y 7 8,4 y union 7
Berber [32] 24377482 retrospective case series 4 16 Schatzker y 2 12.5 y 2 12.5 n 0 0 n good 2
Biggi [33] 20888560 retrospective case series 4 58 AO y 3 5.2 y 4 6.9 y 1 1,7 y good 1
Bucholz [34] 2537166 randomized controlled trial 1 40 Hohl n 0 0 y 4 10.0 y 4 10 y good 3 persistent infection 1
Chakraverty [35] 19516098 retrospective case series 4 16 AO y 3 18.8 y 2 12.5 y 2 12,5 y amputation 1 persistent infection 1
Cole [36] 15475848 retrospective case series 4 78 AO y 22 28.2 y 2 2.6 y 2 2,6 y union 2
Conserva [37] 26243524 retrospective case series 4 79 Schatzker n 0 0 y 11 13.9 y 6 7,6 y arthroplasty 1 good 5
Dallo’Oca [38] 23086660 retrospective case series 4 100 Schatzker n 0 0 y 4 4.0 y 2 2 y arthroplasty 1 persistent infection 1
Egol [39] 16056075 retrospective case series 4 53 Schatzker y 16 30.2 y 3 5.7 y 3 5,7 y nonunion 1 union 2
Engelbrecht [40] 4648423 retrospective case series 4 194 not mentioned n 0 0 y 6 3.1 y 6 3,1 y ankylosis 2 persistent fistula 1 union 3
Hadiukenych [41] 17332111 retrospective case series 4 54 AO y 12 21.0 y 3 5.6 y 2 3,7 y amputation 1 nonunion 1
Hutson [42] 9553864 prospective cohort 3 70 AO y 33 47.1 y 5 7.1 y 3 4,3 y persistent oedema 1 amputation 1 persistent infection 1
Jansen [43] 23661179 retrospective case series 4 22 AO y 6 26.1 y 4 17.0 y 2 9,1 y pseudarthrosis 2
Khatri [44] 10.1155/2014/589538 retrospective case series 4 65 Schatzker n 0 0 y 6 9.2 y 3 4,6 y delayed union 2 nonunion 1
Lin [19] 23754632 retrospective case series 4 251 AO y 30 11.7 y 20 7.8 y 16 6,4 y nonunion 3 malalignement 1 union 12
Marsh [4] 7744891 prospective cohort 3 20 Schatzker y 7 35.0 y 9 45.0 y 2 10 y ankylosis 1 union 1
Neogi [45] 26015609 prospective cohort study 3 61 AO y 10 16.4 y 7 11.5 y 1 1,6 y Stiffness 1
Ozkaya [46] 26021666 retrospective case series 4 22 AO n 0 0 y 4 18.2 y 1 4,5 y stiffness 1
Phisitkul [3] 17304060 retrospective case series 4 37 AO y 6 16.2 y 8 22.0 y 8 21,6 y amputation 1 satisfactory 7
Pun [47] 24600061 prospective cohort study 3 21 Schatzker y 4 19.0 y 2 9.5 n 0 0 n good 2
Rademakers [48] 17211262 retrospective case series 4 202 AO n 0 0 y 11 5.4 y 11 5,4 y arthrodesis 2 union 9
Sales [49] 24498816 retrospective case series 4 28 Schatzker y 9 32.1 y 7 25.0 n 0 0 n good 7
Stannard [50] 19753230 retrospective case series 4 52 AO y 52 100 y 6 11.5 y 3 5,8 y amputation 1 nonunion 2
Stannard [51] 14563009 prospective cohort 3 32 Schatzker y 17 53.1 y 2 6.3 y 2 6,3 y nonunion 1 union 1
Su [52] 15123954 retrospective case series 4 38 Schatzker y 1 2.6 y 3 7.7 y 1 2,6 y union 1
Wagner [53] 3749907 retrospective case series 4 32 AO n 0 0 y 6 18.8 y 6 18,8 y ankolysis 1 arthrodesis 5
Weaver [54] 22169068 retrospective case series 4 140 AO y 20 14.3 y 15 10.7 y 15 10,8 y nonunion 7 malalignement 8
Young [55] 8196973 prospective cohort study 3 45 AO y 9 20 y 13 28.9 y 13 28,9 y amputation 2 arthrodesis 3 ankylosis 8
Zhai [56] 24346508 retrospective case series 4 26 AO y 8 30.8 y 4 15.4 y 1 3,8 y good 1
Zhang [57] 22385447 retrospective case series 4 79 AO y 7 8.9 y 9 11.4 y 3 3,8 y bone graft and muscle flap 3